Illinois Natural History Survey - University of Illinois

The Tallgrass Prairie in Illinois
References

Compiled by Kenneth R. Robertson

Below are some useful referenceson the general topic of prairies.


General Books

Adelman, Charlotte and B. L. Schwartz. 2002. Prairie directory of North America. Lawndale Enterprises, Wilmette, IL. [ISBN 0-9715096-3]

Allen, D.L. 1967. The life of the prairies and plains. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York. 232 pp.

Angle, P.M. 1968. Prairie State: Impressions of Illinois, 1763-1967, by travellers and other observers. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Bernhardt, P. 1989. Wily violets and underground violets. Revelations of a botanist. William Morrow and Company, Inc., New York. xii + 255 p + 8 color photos on 8 pp. [See Chapter 4, Prairie Days.]

Betz, R.F. 1965. Prairie plants of the Chicago region. The Morton Arboretum, Lisle, Illinois. 14 pp.

Bogue, A.G. 1963. From prairie to corn belt: farming on the Illinois and Iowa prairies in the nineteenth century. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 310 pp.

Campbell, M.F. and D.L. Westfall. 1991. The prairie in Vermilion County. Outdoor Heritage Foundation of Vermilion County, Westville, Illinois. 68 pp.

Costello, D.F. 1969. The Prairie World. Crowell, New York. xii + 242 pp.

Duncan, P.D. 1978. Tallgrass prairie. The inland sea. Lowell Press, Kansas City. xii + 113 pp.

Evans, T. 1986. Prairie: Images of ground and sky. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence. 72 pp.

Fitzpatrick, T. 1993. Signals from the heartland. Walker and Company, New York. xx + 230 pp.

Gerhard, F. 1857. Illinois as it is. Keen and Lee, Chicago; Charles Desilver, Philadelphia. 451 pp.

Given, D.R. 1994. Principles and practice of plant conservation. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. viii + 292 pp.

Herkert, J.R., ed. 1991. Endangered and threatened species of Illinois: status and distribution. Volume 1–Plants. Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board, Springfield. iii + 159 pp.

Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board. 1994. Checklist of endangered and threatened animals and plants of Illinois. Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board, Springfield. ii + 20 pp.

Illinois Nature Preserves Commission. 1990. Vegetation management manual. Vol. 1, No. 1-27. Springfield, Illinois. 134 pp.

Jeffords, M.R., S.L. Post, and K.R. Robertson. 1995. Illinois Wilds. Phoenix Press, Champaign, Illinois. 156 pp.

Kindscher, K. 1987. Edible Wild Plants of the Prairie. An Ethnobotanical Guide. University of Kansas Press, Lawrence. x + 276 pp.

Kindscher, K. 1992. Medicinal Wild Plants of the Prairie. An Ethnobotanical Guide. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence. xi + 340 pp.

Kinsey, J. L. 1996. Plain pictures: Images of the American prairies. Published for the University of Iowa Museum of Art by the Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. xx + 236 pp.

Kirt, R. 1995. Prairie plants of the Midwest: identification and ecology. Stipes Publishing, Champaign, Illinois. xvii + 137 pp.

Knapp, A. K., J. M. Briggs, D. C. Hartnett, and S. L. Collins, editors. 1998. Grassland dynamics: Long-term ecological research in tallgrass prairie. Oxford University Press, New York and Oxford. xvi + 365 pp.

Kurtz, Carl. 2001. A practical guide to prairie restoration. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City. xii + 57 pp.

Ladd, D. 1995. Tallgrass prairie wildflowers: A Falcon field guide. 1995. A Nature Conservancy Book. Falcon Press, Helena, Montana. 262 pp.

Lafferty, M.B., editor-in-chief. 1979. Ohio’s natural heritage. Ohio Academy of Science, Columbus. xi + 324 pp.

Leopold, A. 1949. A sand county almanac. Oxford University Press, New York. xiii + 226 pp.

Lunn, E.T. 1982. Plants of the Illinois Dunesland. The Illinois Dunesland Preservation Society, Waukegan. iii + 118 pp.

Madson, J. 1982. Where the sky began. Land of the tallgrass prairie. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston; paperback by Sierra Club Books, San Francisco. xii + 321 pp.

Madson, J. and F. Oberle. 1993. Tall grass prairie. Falcon Press, Helena, Montana. xv + 112 pp.

McClain, W.E. 1986. Illinois prairie: past and future. A restoration guide. Illinois Department of Conservation, Springfield. 26 pp.

McClain, W.E. 1997. Prairie establishment and landscaping. Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Division of Natural Heritage, Springfield. 62 pp.

McKnight, B.N. 1993. Biological pollution: the control and impact of invasive exotic species. Proceddings of a symposium held at the University Place Conference Center, Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis. Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis. x + 261 pp.

Mohlenbrock, R.H. 1983. Where have all the wildflowers gone? A region-to-region guide to threatened or endangered U. S. wildflowers. Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., New York. xiv + 239 p. + 4 plates.

Mohlenbrock, R.H. 1986. Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. Revised and enlarged edition. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale and Edwardsville. xi + 507 pp.

Nichols, S. and L. Entine. 1976. Prairie primer. University of Wisconsin Extension, Madison. 44 pp.

Norman, F. and T. Nigh. 1993. Changes in the composition of a Missouri tallgrass prairie in relation to eight management treatments. Missouri Department of Conservation, Natural History Division, Jefferson City. 54 p. + appendices.

Noss, R. F. and A.Y. Cooperrider. 1994. Saving nature's legacy. Protecting and restoring biodiversity. Island Press, Washington, D.C. xxvii + 416 pp.

Noss, R.F., E.T. LaRoe III, and J.M. Scott. 1995. Endangered ecosystems of the United States: A preliminary assessment of loss and degradation. National Biological Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Biological Report 28. iv + 58 pp.

Packard, S. and C. F. Mutel. 1997a. The tallgrass restoration handbook for prairies, savannas, and woodlands. Society for Ecological Restoration by Island Press, Washington, DC and Covelo, California. xxxii + 463 pages.

Pielou, E.C. 1991. After the Ice Age : the return of life to glaciated North America. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois. ix + 366 pp.

Reich, B. 1971. Guide to the Arboretum Prairies. Friends of the University of Wisconsin Arboretum, Madison. 62 pp.

Rock, H.W. 1981. Prairie propagation handbook, Sixth edition. Milwaukee County Department of Parks, Recreation and Culture, Wehr Nature Center, Whitnall Park, Hales Corners, Wisconsin. iv + 74 pp.

Roe, F.G. 1951. The North American buffalo: a critical study of the species in its wild state. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Ontario.

Ross, H.H. 1963. The dunesland heritage of Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Circular 49. 28 pp.

Runkel, S.T. and D.M. Roosa. 1989. Wildflowers of the Tallgrass Prairie: The Upper Midwest. Iowa State University Press, Ames. xii + 279 pp.

Samson, F. B. and F. L. Knopf, editors. 1996. Prairie conservation: Preserving North America's most endangered ecosystem. Island Press, Washington, DC and Covelo, California. xii + 337 pp.

Sears, P.B. 1969. Lands Beyond the Forest. Pentice-Hall.

Smith, J.R. and B.S. Smith. 1980. The prairie garden. 70 native plants you can grow in town or country. The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. vii + 219 pp.

Smyser, C.A. 1982. Nature's design: a practical guide to natural landscaping. Rodale Press, Emmaus, Pennsylvania. xxiv + 390 pp.

Vierling, P.E. 1976. Grassland parks of northeastern Illinois. Illinois Country Outdoor Guidebook No. 5, Chicago. 100 pp.

Voigt, J.W. and R.H. Mohlenbrock. 1979. Prairie plants of Illinois. Illinois Department of Conservation, Springfield. 272 pp.

Watts, M.T. 1975. Reading the landscape of America. Revised and expanded edition. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York. x + 354 pp. [Reprinted 1999 by Nature Study Guild Publishers, P.O. Box 10498, Rochester, NY 14610-0489. e-mail: naturebooks@worldnet.att.net.]


Technical Books

Anderson, R.C. 1982. An evolutionary model summarizing the roles of fire, climate, and grazing animals in the origin and maintenance of grasslands: an end paper. Pp. 297-308 in J.R. Estes, R. Tryl, and J.N. Brunken, editors, Grasses and Grasslands: Systematics and Ecology. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

Burton, P.J., K.R. Robertson, L.R. Iverson, and P.G. Risser. 1988. Use of resource partitioning and disturbance regimes in the design and management of restored prairies. Pp. 46-88 in E.B. Allen, editor, The Reconstruction of Disturbed Arid Lands. AAAS Selected Symposium 109. Westview Press, Inc., Boulder Colorado, for the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C.

Collins, S.L. and L.L. Wallace, eds. 1990. Fire in North American tallgrass prairies. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. xii + 175 pp.

Cooper, T.E., ed. 1982. Iowa’s natural heritage. Iowa Academy of Science and Iowa Natural Heritage Foundation, Des Moines. 341 pp.

Curtis, J.T. 1959. The Vegetation of Wisconsin. An ordination of plant communities. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin. xi + 657 pp.

Dix, R.L. 1964. A history of biotic and climatic changes within the North American grassland. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, England.

Eilers, L.J. and D.M. Roosa. 1994. The vascular plants of Iowa. An annotated checklist and natural history. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City. xi + 304 p.

Estes, J.R., R.J. Tyrl, and J.N. Brunken, editors. 1982. Grasses and grasslands: systematics and ecology. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. 312 pp.

Groombridge, B., editor. 1992. Global biodiversity: status of the earth's living resources. A report compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Chapman & Hall, London. [Chapter 21. Grasslands. Pages 280-292.].

Harris, L.D. 1984. The fragmented forest. Island biogeography theory and the preservation of biotic diversity. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London. xviii + 211 pp.

Jordon, W.R., III. 1988. Ecological restoration: reflections on a half-century of experience at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Arboretum. Pp. 311-316 in E.O. Wilson, editor, Biodiversity. National Academy Press, Washington, D. C.

Reichman, O.J. 1987. Konza Prairie. A tallgrass natural history. University of Kansas Press, Lawrence. xi + 226 pp. + 18 color photographs on 12 pls.

Risser, P.G., E.C. Birney, H.D. Blocker, S.W. May, W.J. Parton, and J.A. Wiens. 1981. The true prairie ecosystem. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Co., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania. xiv + 557 pp.

Shirley, S. 1994. Restoring the Tallgrass prairie: An illustrated manual for Iowa and the Upper Midwest. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City. xiii + 330 pp.

Thompson, J.R. 1992. Prairies, forests, and wetlands. The restoration of natural landscape communities in Iowa. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City. ix + 139 pp.

Swierenga, R.P., editor. 1984. History and ecology: studies of the grassland. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln. xxix + 376 pp.

Tobey, R.C. 1981. Saving the prairies. The life cycle of the founding school of American plant ecology, 1895-1955. University of California Press, Berkeley. x + 315 pp.

Weaver, J.E. and T.J. Fitzpatrick. 1934. The prairie. Ecological Monographs 4: 109-295.

Weaver, J.E. 1954. North American prairie. Johnsen Publishing Co., Lincoln, Nebraska. 348 pp.

Weaver, J.E. 1968. Prairie plants and their environment. A fifty-year study in the Midwest. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln. xi +276 pp.

Weaver, J.E. and F.W. Albertson. 1956. Grasslands of the Great Plains. Johnsen Publishing Co., Lincoln, Nebraska. ix + 395 pp.

Zimmerman, J.L. 1993. The birds of Konza. The avian ecology of the tallgrass prairie. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence. xviii + 186 p. + 8 p. of plates.


Conference Proceedings

Betz, R.F. and H.F. Lamp. 1989. Species composition of old settler silt-loam cemetery prairies. Pp. 33-39 in T.B. Braggs and J. Stubbendieck, editors, Proceedings of the Eleventh North American Prairie Conference. Prairie pioneers: Ecology, history and culture. University of Nebraska Printing, Lincoln.

Betz, R.F. and H.F. Lamp. 1992. Species composition of old settler savanna and sand prairie cemeteries in northern Illinois and northwestern Indiana. Pp. 39-87 in D.A. Smith and C.A. Jacobs, editors, Proceedings of the Twelfth North American Prairie Conference. University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls.

Betz, R. F. and M. Becker. 1999. Two decades of prairie restoration at Fermilab. Pages 20 - 30 in Preceedings of the Fifteenth North American Prairie Conference.

Bragg, T.B. and J. Stubbendieck, editors. 1989. Proceedings of the Eleventh North American Prairie Conference. Prairie pioneers: ecology, history, and culture. University of Nebraska Printing, Lincoln. xii + 292 pp.

Burton, P.G., K.R. Robertson, L.R. Iverson, and P.G. Risser. 1988. Suggested applications of ecological theory to prairie restoration. Paper 01.16 in: G.B. Stanford, editor, Proceedings of the Tenth North American Prairie Conference, June 22-26, 1986, Denton, Texas. The Native Prairies Association of Texas, Dallas.

Clambey, G.K. and R.H. Premble, editors. 1986. The prairie: past, present and future. Proceedings of the Ninth North American Prairie Conference. Tri-College University Center for Environmental Studies, Fargo, North Dakota and Moorhead, Minnesota. vii + 264 pp.

Davis, A. and G. Stanford, editors. 1988. The prairie: roots of our culture; foundation of our economy: Proceedings of the Tenth North American Prairie Conference. Native Prairie Association of Texas, Dallas.

Diekelmann, J., E.A. Howell, and J. Harrington. 1986. An approach to residential landscaping with prairie. Pp. 242-248 in G. K. Clambey and R.H. Pemble, editors, The prairie: past, present and future. Proceedings of the Ninth North American Prairie Conference.

La PrŽ, L. and M. Morris. 1995. Prairie seed collecting: A hands-on experience. Pp. 42-48 in T.E. Rice, editor, Proceedings of the Fourth Central Illinois Prairie Conference. Prairie remnants: Rekindling our natural heritage. Grand Prairie Friends of Illinois, Urbana.

Handel, W.C. 1995. Edible and medicinal prairie plants of Illinois. Pp. 49-53 in T.E. Rice, editor, Proceedings of the Fourth Central Illinois Prairie Conference. Prairie remnants: Rekindling our natural heritage. Grand Prairie Friends of Illinois, Urbana.

Monoson, H.J., W.J. Sundberg, and A.S. Methven. 1995. Fleshy fungi associated with prairies and related habitats in Illinois. Pp. 38-41 in T.E. Rice, editor, Proceedings of the Fourth Central Illinois Prairie Conference. Prairie remnants: Rekindling our natural heritage. Grand Prairie Friends of Illinois, Urbana.

Phillips, C.A. 1995. Amphibians and reptiles of Illinois prairie habitats. Pp. 56-63 in T.E. Rice, editor, Proceedings of the Fourth Central Illinois Prairie Conference. Prairie remnants: Rekindling our natural heritage. Grand Prairie Friends of Illinois, Urbana.

Robertson, K.R., M.E. Schwartz, J.W. Olson, B.K. Dunphy, and H.D. Clarke. 1995. A synopsis of hill prairies in Illinois: 50 years of change. Pp. 9-20 in T.E. Rice, editor, Proceedings of the Fourth Central Illinois Prairie Conference. Prairie remnants: Rekindling our natural heritage. Grand Prairie Friends of Illinois, Urbana.

Schramm, P. 1970. A practical restoration method for tall grass prairie. Pp. 63-65 in P. Schramm, editor, Proceedings of a Symposium on Prairie and Prairie Restoration. Knox College, Galesburg, Illinois.

Schramm, P. 1978. The do's and don'ts of prairie restoration. Pp. 139-150 in D.C. Glenn-Lewin and R.Q. Landers, Jr., editors, Proceedings of the Fifth Midwest Prairie Conference, August 22-24, 1976. Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa.

Schramm, P. 1992. Prairie restoration: A twenty-five year perspective on establishment and management. Pp. 169-177 in D.D. Smith and C.A. Jacobs, editors, Proceedings of the Twelth North American Prairie Conference. University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls.

Schulenberg, R. 1970. Summary of Morton Arboretum prairie restoration work, 1963-1968. Pp. 45-46 in P. Schramm, editor, Proceedings of a Symposium on Prairie and Prairie Restoration. Knox College, Galesburg, Illinois.

Schwartz, M.E. 1995. The role of small prairie preserves in the context of the new bioreserve conservation approach. Pp. 80-86 in T.E. Rice, editor, Proceedings of the Fourth Central Illinois Prairie Conference. Prairie remnants: Rekindling our natural heritage. Grand Prairie Friends of Illinois, Urbana.

Smith, D.D. and C.A. Jacobs, editors. 1992. Proceedings of the Twelfth North American Prairie Conference. University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls. x + 218 pp.

Sokecki, M.K. 1995. Aggressive exotic and native species in Illinois prairies. Pp. 67-70 in T.E. Rice, editor, Proceedings of the Fourth Central Illinois Prairie Conference. Prairie remnants: Rekindling our natural heritage. Grand Prairie Friends of Illinois, Urbana.

Taft, J.B. 1995. Ecology, distribution, and rareness patterns of threatened and endangered prairie plants in Illinois. Pp. 21-31 in T.E. Rice, editor, Proceedings of the Fourth Central Illinois Prairie Conference. Prairie remnants: Rekindling our natural heritage. Grand Prairie Friends of Illinois, Urbana.

Wells, P.V. 1970. Historical factors controlling vegetation patterns and floristic distributions in the Central Plains region of North America. Pp. 211-221 in W. Dort, Jr. and J.K. Jones, Jr., editors. Pleistocene and Recent environments of the central Great Plains. Department of Geology, University of Kansas, Special Publication 3, Lawrence.

Wickett, R.G., P.D. Lewis, A. Woodliffe, and P. Pratt, editors. 1994. Proceedings of the Thirteenth North American Prairie Conference. Department of Parks and Recreation, Windsor, Ontario, Canada. viii + 262 pp.

Wright, H.E., Jr. 1968. History of the prairie peninsula. Pp. 78-88 in R.E. Bergstrom, editor, The Quaternary of Illinois. University of Illinois College of Agriculture Special Publication No. 14, Urbana


General Journal Articles

Anderson, R.C. 1972. The prairies. Outdoor Illinois 11: 19-26.

Armstrong, P.K. 1985. Life at Prairie Sun: weeds, water bans, and worried neighbors. Morton Arboretum Quarterly 21: 17-30.

Bonta, M. 1991. Restoring our tallgrass prairies. American Horticulturist 70: 10-18.

Farney, D. 1980. Can the tallgrass prairie be saved? National Geographic 157: 37-61.

Fields, W. 1988. Lost Horizons: America's Grass Prairies. American Heritage 39: 54.

King, J.E. 1981. The prairies of Illinois. The Living Museum 43: 42-45.

Lamb, L. 1990. A Tall-Grass Prairie in a Small Backyard: Adventurous Gardener Evokes a Bygone Landscape. Fine Gardening May/June 1990: 47-52.

Mlot, C. 1990. Restoring the prairie. Big bluestem and other native tallgrass plants make a comeback. BioScience 40:804-809.

Schwegman, J. 1983. Illinois prairie: then & now. Outdoor Illinois 11: 3-13.

Sullivan, J. 1988. Bringing Back the Prairie. Audubon 90 : 404.


Technical Journal Articles

Aaseng, N.E., J.C. Almendinger, R.P. Dana, B.C. Delaney, H.L. Dunevitz, K.A. Rusterholz, N.P. Sather, and D.S. Wovcha. 1993. Minnesota’s native vegetation. A key to natural communities. Version 1.5. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources Biological Report No. 20.

Anderson, R.C. 1970. Prairies in the prairie state. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 63:214—221.

Anderson, R.C. 1972. Prairie history, management, and restoration. Pages 15—21 in J. Zimmerman, ed. Proceedings of the Second Midwestern Prairie Conference, Madison, Wisconsin.

Anderson, R.C. 1982. An evolutionary model summarizing the roles of fire, climate, and grazing animals in the origin and maintenance of grasslands: an end paper. Pages 297—308 in J.R. Estes, R.J. Tyrl, and J.N. Brunken, eds. Grasses and grasslands: systematics and ecology, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

Anderson R.C. 1990. The historic role of fire in North American grassland. Pages 8-18 in S.L. Collins and L.L. Wallace, eds. Fire in North American tallgrass prairies. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

Anderson, R.C. 1991a. Illinois prairies: a historical perspective. Pages 384—391 in L.M. Page and M.R. Jeffords, eds. Our living heritage: the biological resources of Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 34(4).

Anderson, R.C. 1991b. The presettlement forests of Illinois. Pages 9-19 in G.V. Burger, J.E. Ebinger, and G.S. Wilhelm, eds. Proceedings of the Oak Woods Management Workshop. Eastern Illinois University, Charleston.

Anderson, R.C., E. Corbett, M.R. Anderson, G. Corbett, and J. Nelson. 1995. Influence of deer browsing on prairie forbs. Pages 64-65 in T.E. Rice, ed. Proceedings of the Fourth Central Illinois Prairie Conference. Grand Prairie Friends of Illinois in cooperation with Millikin University, Biology Department, and Macon County Conservation District, Urbana and Decatur.

Aspinwall, N. and T. Christian. 1992a. Clonal structure, genotype diversity, and seed production in populations of Filipendula rubra (Rosaceae) from the northcentral United States. American Journal of Botany 79:294-299.

Aspinwall, N. and T. Christian. 1992b. Pollination biology, seed production, and population structure in queen-of-the-prairie, Filipendula rubra (Rosaceae) at Botkin Fen, Missouri. American Journal of Botany 79:488-494.

Axelrod, D. 1985. Rise of the grassland biome, central North America. Botanical Review 51:163—201.

Bakowsky, W. and J.L. Riley. 1994. A survey of the prairies and savannas of southern Ontario. Pages 7-16 in R.G. Wickett, P.D. Lewis, A. Woodliffe, and P. Pratt, eds. Proceedings of the Thirteenth North American Prairie Conference: Spirit of the land, our prairie legacy. Department of Parks and Recreation, Windsor, Ontario, Canada.

Barrett, S.C.H. and J.R. Kohn. 1991. Genetic and evolutionary consequences of small population size in plants: implications for conservation. Pages 3—30 in D.A. Falk and K.E. Holsinger, eds. Genetics and conservation of rare plants. Oxford University Press, New York.

Bazzaz, F.A. and R.W. Carlson. 1984. The response of plants to elevated CO2. I. Competition among an assemblage of annuals at different levels of soil moisture. Oecologia 62:196—198.

Betz, R.F. 1986. One decade of research in prairie restoration at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) Batavia, Illinois. Pages 179-185 in G.K. Clambey and R.H. Pemble, eds. Proceedings of the Ninth North American Prairie Conference. The prairie: past, present and future. Tri-College University Center for Environmental Studies, Fargo, North Dakota and Moorhead, Minnesota.

Betz, R.F. and H.F. Lamp. 1989. Species composition of old settler silt-loam prairies. Pages 33—39 in T.B. Bragg and J. Stubbendieck, eds. Proceedings of the Eleventh North American Prairie Conference. Prairie Pioneers: Ecology, History and Culture. University of Nebraska Printing, Lincoln.

Betz, R.F. and H.F. Lamp. 1992. Species composition of old settler savanna and sand prairie cemeteries in northern Illinois and northwestern Indiana. Pages 79—87 in D.D. Smith and C.A. Jacobs, eds. Proceedings of the Twelfth North American Prairie Conference. Recapturing a vanishing heritage, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls.

Blasing, T.J. and D. Duvick. 1984. Reconstruction of precipitation history in North American corn belt using tree rings. Nature 307:143-145.

Bohlen, H.D. and W. Zimmerman. 1989. The birds of Illinois. Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis. xvii + 221 p. + plates.

Bowles, M.L., K. Kerr, R.H. Thom, and D.E. Birkenholz. 1980. Threatened, endangered and extirpated birds of Illinois prairies. Illinois Audubon Bulletin 193:2—12.

Briggs, J.M. and A.K. Knapp. 1995. Interannual variability in primary production in tallgrass prairie: climate, soil moisture, topographic position, and fire as determinants of aboveground biomass. American Journal of Botany 82:1024-1030.

Britton, W.A. and A.S. Messenger. 1970. Computed soil moisture patterns in and around the prairie peninsula during the great drought of 1933-1934. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 62:181-187.

Burger, L.D., L.W. Burger, Jr., and J. Faaborg. 1994. Effects of prairie fragmentation on predation on artificial nests. Journal of Wildlife Management 58:249-254.

Burkhart, A. 1975. Evolution of grasses and grasslands in South America. Taxon 24:53-66.

Burton, P.J., K.R. Robertson, L.R. Iverson, and P.G. Risser. 1988a. Use of resource partitioning and disturbance regimes in the design and management of restored prairies. Pages 46—88 inE.B. Allen, ed. The reconstruction of disturbed arid lands. An ecological approach. Westview Press, Inc., Boulder, Colorado, for the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C.

Burton, P.J., K.R. Robertson, L.R. Iverson, and P.G. Risser. 1988b. Suggested applications of ecological theory to prairie restorations. Paper 01.16 [6 p.] in A. Davis and G. Stanford, eds. Proceedings of the Tenth North American Prairie Conference. The prairie: roots of our culture; foundation of our economy. Native Prairie Association of Texas, Dallas.

Cassels, D.M., R.L. Gillen, F.T. McCollum, K.W. Tate, and M.E. Hodges. 1995. Effects of grazing management on standing crop dynamics in tallgrass prairie. Journal of Range Management 48:81-84.

Chapco, W. and M.J. Bidochka. 1986. Genetic variation in prairie populations of Melanoplus sanguinipes, the migratory grasshopper. Heredity 56:397-408.

Chapman, K., M. White, R. Johnson, and Z.M. Wong. 1990. An approach to evaluate long-term survival of the tallgrass prairie ecosystem. The Nature Conservancy, Midwest Regional Office, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 50 pp.

Clark, B.K., B.S. Clark, and E.A. Jacobi. 1991. Ability of prairie rodents to find seeds in plant litter. American Midland Naturalist 126:385-391.

Clark, B.K. and D.W. Kaufman. 1990. Short-term responses of small mammals to experimental fire in tallgrass prairie. Canadian Journal of Zoology 68:2450-2454.

Clark, B.K. and D.W. Kaufman. 1991. Effects of plant litter on foraging and nesting behavior of prairie rodents. Journal of Mammalogy 72:502-512.

Cole, M.A.R. 1991. Vegetation management guideline: white and yellow sweet clover [Melilotus alba Desr. and Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam.]. Natural Areas Journal 11:213—214.

Collins, S.L. 1992. Fire frequency and community heterogeneity in tallgrass prairie vegetation. Ecology 73:2001-2006.

Collins, S.L., S.M. Glenn, and D.J. Gibson. 1995. Experimental analysis of intermediate disturbance and initial floristic composition: decoupling cause and effect. Ecology 76:486-492.

Crumpacker, D.W., S.W. Hodge, D. Friedley, and W.P. Gregg, Jr. 1988. A preliminary assessment of the status of major terrestrial and wetland ecosystems on Federal and Indian lands in the United States. Conservation Biology 2:103-115.

Davis, M.B. 1988. Ecological systems dynamics. Pages 69—106 in Toward an understanding of global change: initial priorities for U.S. contributions to the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

Davis, M.B. and C. Zabinski. 1992. Changes in geographical range resulting from greenhouse warming: effects on biodiversity in forests. Pages 297—308 in R.L. Peters, ed. Consequences of greenhouse warming to biodiversity. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.

Dennis, A. and D.E. Harry. 1988. Role of genetic variation in the preservation, restoration, and management of tallgrass prairies. Illinois Natural History Survey unpublished report based on presentation to Second Central Illinois Prairie Conference, September 25, 1988, Wildlife Prairie Park, Peoria.

Dolan, R.W. 1994. Patterns of isozyme variation in relation to population size, isolation, and phytogeographic history in royal catchfly (Silene regia; Caryophyllaceae). American Journal of Botany 81:965-972.

Emanuel, W.R., H.H. Shugart, and M.P. Stevensohn. 1985. Climate change and the broad-scale distribution of terrestrial ecosystem complexes. Climatic Change 7:29—43.

Evans, E.W. 1991. Experimental manipulation of herbivores in native tallgrass prairie: responses of aboveground arthropods. American Midland Naturalist 125:37-46.

Evers, R.A. 1955. Hill prairies of Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 26: 368-446.

Fahnestock, J.T. and A.K. Knapp. 1993. Water relations and growth of tallgrass prairie forbs in response to selective grass herbivory by bison. International Journal of Plant Science 154:432-440.

Farney, D. 1980. Can the tallgrass prairie be saved? National Geographic 157(1):37—61.

Farquhar, G.D. and T.D. Sharkey. 1982. Stomatal conductance and photosynthesis. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 33:317—345.

Fay, P.A. and R.J. Samenus, Jr. 1993. Gall wasp (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae) mortality in a spring tallgrass prairie fire. Environmental Entomology 22:1333-1337.

Fehrenbacher, J., B. Ray, and J. Alexander. 1968. Illinois soils and factors in their development. Pages 165-175 in R.E. Bergstrom, ed. The Quaternary of Illinois. Special Publication 14. College of Agriculture, University of Illinois, Urbana.

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