Illinois Natural History Survey - University of Illinois

Xanthium strumarium
Canada cockleburr, Cockle bur, Rough cockleburr, Spiny cockleburr
Taxonomy

Synonyms: Xanthium strumarium glabratum, Xanthium strumarium canadensis, Xanthium strumarium var. glabratum, Xanthium strumarium var. canadense

Subspecific taxa:

Classification:

Other taxonomic & nomenclature sources: USDA PlantsITISThe Plant ListIPNI

Images

   
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Species Distribution
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County Map Legend
Absent:
Not known from county
Medium confidence:
Medium or unknown confidence;
often old records or unverifiable observations
Medium-high confidence:
Often observations by expert botanists
High confidence:
Often vouchered herbarium records
Planted / introduced:
Native species introduced outside historic range,
or only in planted locations within county (e.g., restorations)
Historic / extirpated:
Only historic records for the species; likely extirpated
(Note that this category is not yet functional)

North American distribution maps for this species: FLNAUSDA PlantsBONAPBISON

Collection & Observation Phenology [?]

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Collection & Observation Timeline [?]

Species Status

Status/Listing: No Information

Notes:

Origin: Native

Species Description

General: Dicot-herb, annual

Roots: primary

Shoots: alternate leaf arrangment; simple leaf type; serrate, lobed (pinnately), lobed (palmately) leaf margin; orbicular and peltate, cordate leaf shape

Inflorescence: head

Flowers: unisexual, monoecious; incomplete, not sepals; green

Fruit: achene

Physiology: autotrophic

Ecology & Natural History

Habitat: Common weed of cultivated ground, especially in cornfields; dried up mud holes; waste places; and Lake Michigan beaches. Common weed of cultivated ground, especially in cornfields, dried up mud holes, waste places, and along rivers.

ILPIN Notes: This variety has burs brownish or yellow-brown, mostly 2-3.5 cm long, provided and more or less stipitate, glandular. with incurved beaks; lower part of prickles conspicuously spreading, hairy, Staminate flowers in terminal or axillary clusters. Pistillate flowers in axillary clusters below the staminate ones. Included here: X. commune Britt., X. italicum Muretti, X. oviforme Wallr., and X. variens Greene. Pollen of this species may cross-react with that of Ambrosia species. However, this plant is less common and probably is not a major hay-fever cause. Muenscher, W.C. 1975. Poisonous Plants of the United States. Part of current Illinois population may be native, but bulk is considered as introduced from Eurasia. Cocklebur sprouts will occur throughout the growing season, if newly emerged land, as about the margins of drying ponds, is available. Staminate flowers are in terminal or axillary clusters. Pistillate flowers are in axillary clusters below the staminate ones. Pollen from this species cross-reacts with that from Ambrosia species. However, this plant is less common and probably is not a major hay-fever cause. Mohlenbrock includes here: X. chasei Fern., X. chinense Mill., X. globosum Shull, X. inflexum Mack. and Bush., and X. pennsylvanicum Mill. Cocklebur sprouts will occur throughout the growing season, if newly emerged land, such as that found on margins of drying ponds, is available. This variety differs from var. canadense in: burs mostly smaller, less glabrous. Leaf veination may also be palmate. pubescent, less glandular, and glandular or glandular puberulent to sub-

Functional Relationships:

  • Pollinators insects (wind)

Human Relationships:

  • Edibility [?] :
  • Showy Flowers:

Wildlife and Livestock Information:

  • Food Value:
  • Cover Value:

Coefficient of Conservatism (C-value) [?] :

  • Entire State: 0
  • Chicago Area:

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