Illinois Natural History Survey - University of Illinois

Fagus grandifolia
Beech
Taxonomy

Synonyms: Fagus grandifolia caroliniana, Fagus grandifolia var. caroliniana, Fagus grandifolia var caroliniana

Subspecific taxa:

Classification:

  • Magnoliophyta

Other taxonomic & nomenclature sources: USDA PlantsITISThe Plant ListIPNI

Images

   
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Species Distribution
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County Map Legend
Absent:
Not known from county
Medium confidence:
Medium or unknown confidence;
often old records or unverifiable observations
Medium-high confidence:
Often observations by expert botanists
High confidence:
Often vouchered herbarium records
Planted / introduced:
Native species introduced outside historic range,
or only in planted locations within county (e.g., restorations)
Historic / extirpated:
Only historic records for the species; likely extirpated
(Note that this category is not yet functional)

North American distribution maps for this species: FLNAUSDA PlantsBONAPBISON

Collection & Observation Phenology [?]

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F
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M
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A
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J
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Collection & Observation Timeline [?]

Species Status

Status/Listing: No Information

Notes:

Origin: Native

Species Description

General: Dicot-woody, perennial

Roots: primary

Shoots: alternate leaf arrangment; simple leaf type; serrate leaf margin; Pinnate leaf venation; linear, lanceolate leaf shape

Inflorescence: head

Flowers: unisexual, monoecious; incomplete, not petals

Fruit: nut

Physiology: autotrophic; C3 C02 fixation

Ecology & Natural History

Habitat: Species is distributed in rich woods, sometimes in swamps, near streams, wet lowlands.

ILPIN Notes: Nuts are dispersed by blue jays (Johnson and Adkisson, 1985). This pertains to aquatic furbearers; terrestrial furbearers (esp. squirrels) who eat nuts. Regarding waterfowl food value, this pertains especially to wood ducks. Regarding small non-game bird food value, this pertains especially to tufted titmice. Regarding small mammals food value, this pertains especially to eastern chipmunks. Species often sends up suckers from its shallow root system. Staminate flowers in heads, pistillate flowers are paired; smooth, gray bark; long, pointed winter buds. Seed company numbers: 2, 19, 20, 28, 29, 30. Form - balled & burlapped. Johnson, W. C., and C. S. Adkisson. 1985. Dispersal of beech nuts by blue jays in fragmented landscapes. American Midland Naturalist 113: 319- 324. Nuts are edible; species plays an insignificant role in causing hayfever.

Functional Relationships:

  • Pollinators insects (wind)

Human Relationships:

  • Edibility [?] : yes
  • Showy Flowers: low

Wildlife and Livestock Information:

  • Food Value: deer: good; upland game birds: good; waterfowl: good; small non-game bird: good; small mammals: good; aquatic species: good
  • Cover Value: small non-game bird: good; small mammals: good

Coefficient of Conservatism (C-value) [?] :

  • Entire State: 8
  • Chicago Area:

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