Illinois Natural History Survey - University of Illinois

Smilax bona-nox
Greenbrier
Taxonomy

Synonyms: Smilax bona-nox hederaefolia, Smilax bona-nox var. bona-nox

Subspecific taxa:

Classification:

Other taxonomic & nomenclature sources: USDA PlantsITISThe Plant ListIPNI

Images

   
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Species Distribution
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County Map Legend
Absent:
Not known from county
Medium confidence:
Medium or unknown confidence;
often old records or unverifiable observations
Medium-high confidence:
Often observations by expert botanists
High confidence:
Often vouchered herbarium records
Planted / introduced:
Native species introduced outside historic range,
or only in planted locations within county (e.g., restorations)
Historic / extirpated:
Only historic records for the species; likely extirpated
(Note that this category is not yet functional)

North American distribution maps for this species: FLNAUSDA PlantsBONAPBISON

Collection & Observation Phenology [?]

J
0
F
0
M
0
A
0
M
0
J
0
J
0
A
0
S
0
O
0
N
0
D
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Collection & Observation Timeline [?]

Species Status

Status/Listing: No Information

Notes:

Origin: Native

Species Description

General: Monocot, perennial

Roots:

Shoots: alternate leaf arrangment; simple leaf type; entire, other leaf margin; Other leaf venation; cordate, oblique leaf shape

Inflorescence: umbel

Flowers: unisexual, dioecious; 3 merous; complete, regular; yellow, green; hypogynous ovary position

Fruit: berry

Physiology: autotrophic

Ecology & Natural History

Habitat: Rocky open woods; low ground in valleys Species is distributed in woods and fields, not common.

ILPIN Notes: Root may be used to prepare a rootbeer-like drink. Pick roots, spring and autumn, when well filled; new shoots May to August; as a bread stuff, soup, cooling drink, jelly, asparagus, & salad. Leaves deciduous; this variety with leaves usually white-mottled Stem usually 4-angled, widely branched. Stem woody, often thorny. with bristle-like hairs, leaf shape narrowly triangular, low plant with slender stems, rarely high-climbing. Roots, spring and autumn (or winter) when well filled; new shoots May to August; breadstuff, soup, cooling drink, jelly, asparagus, salad. Stems are woody, often thorny, leaves deciduous. Stems are usually 4-angled, widely branched. This variety has leaves which are usually green, lacking bristle-like hairs, leaf shapes broadly ovate-cordate, plants stouter, often climbing. Species is found only in southern 1/6 of Illinois.

Functional Relationships:

Human Relationships:

  • Edibility [?] : yes
  • Showy Flowers:

Wildlife and Livestock Information:

  • Food Value:
  • Cover Value:

Coefficient of Conservatism (C-value) [?] :

  • Entire State: 5
  • Chicago Area:

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