Illinois Natural History Survey - University of Illinois

Alnus incana ssp. rugosa
Speckled alder
Taxonomy

Synonyms: Alnus incana rugosa, Alnus rugosa var. americana, Alnus incana, Alnus rugosa var. rugosa, Alnus incana var. americana, Alnus rugosa, Alnus americana, Alnus incana var. incana, Alnus incana var. rugosa, Betula rugosa

Subspecific taxa:

Classification:

  • Magnoliophyta
    • Magnoliopsida

Other taxonomic & nomenclature sources: USDA PlantsITISThe Plant ListIPNI

Images

   
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Species Distribution
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County Map Legend
Absent:
Not known from county
Medium confidence:
Medium or unknown confidence;
often old records or unverifiable observations
Medium-high confidence:
Often observations by expert botanists
High confidence:
Often vouchered herbarium records
Planted / introduced:
Native species introduced outside historic range,
or only in planted locations within county (e.g., restorations)
Historic / extirpated:
Only historic records for the species; likely extirpated
(Note that this category is not yet functional)

North American distribution maps for this species: FLNAUSDA PlantsBONAPBISON

Collection & Observation Phenology [?]

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Collection & Observation Timeline [?]

Species Status

Status/Listing: State Endangered

Notes:

Origin: Native

Species Description

General: Dicot-woody, perennial

Roots: primary

Shoots: alternate leaf arrangment; simple leaf type; doubly serrate leaf margin; Pinnate leaf venation; lanceolate, obovate leaf shape

Inflorescence: catkin

Flowers: unisexual, monoecious; incomplete, not petals; epigynous ovary position

Fruit: nut

Physiology: autotrophic; C3 C02 fixation

Ecology & Natural History

Habitat:

ILPIN Notes: Food source of food especially for redpolls, goldfinches, grouse, muskrats, and beaver. Cool, moist stratification increases germination rate of seeds (Huenneke, 1987). Reproduces vegetatively by formation of root suckers (Huenneke, 1987). Good for the revegetation of spoil banks. Daly, G. T. 1966. Nitrogen fixation by nodulated Alnus rugosa. Canadian Journal of Botany 44: 1607-1621. Huenneke, L. F. 1987. Demography of a clonal shrub, Alnus incana ssp. rugosa (Betulaceae). The American Midland Naturalist 117: 43-55.

Functional Relationships:

  • Pollinators insects (wind)

Human Relationships:

  • Edibility [?] :
  • Showy Flowers:

Wildlife and Livestock Information:

  • Food Value: deer: poor; upland game birds: good; aquatic species: good
  • Cover Value: upland game birds: good

Coefficient of Conservatism (C-value) [?] :

  • Entire State: 7
  • Chicago Area: 8

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