Illinois Natural History Survey - University of Illinois

Checklist of Vascular Plants Occurring at the Savanna Army Depot, Carroll and Jo Daviess Counties, Illinois

Kenneth R. Robertson, Loy R. Phillippe, Geoffey A. Levin, and Michael J. Moore
Center for Biodiversity
Illinois Natural History Survey
607 East Peabody Drive
Champaign, IL 61820 USA

 

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Click here for a temporary link to a DRAFT copy of the text for the final report

 


Genera beginning with A - D are given below.

Go to E - P

Go to Q - Z

 


In 1917, at the height of World War I, the United States Army was searching for remote, sparsely populated sites to test and store munitions. A huge expanse of sand near the Mississippi River in northwestern Illinois (Carroll and Jo Daviess counties) fit the bill and the Savanna Army Depot was established. Prior to the Army's occupation, this area, known locally as "The Prairie," was studied and observed by Dr. Henry Allan Gleason in 1908. Now, 80 years later, the Depot is being decommissioned. The Illinois Department of Natural Resources, together with various federal agencies, is gathering data to help plan the Depot's future. A team of botanists from the Illinois Natural History Survey's Center for Biodiversity is responsible for evaluating the natural communities and surveying the plants that exist at the Depot.

The Army probably did not recognize the tremendous biological significance of the Depot when it was established, but its extensive sands are very unusual in Illinois. Previous DNR-sponsored surveys of the Depot had located 11 threatened or endangered plant species. With increased access to the base, we discovered one additional state endangered species and many previously unknown populations of the others. We also found at least one plant previously unknown from Illinois that should be a candidate for threatened or endangered status.

Many of the Depot's rare plants are western species that reach their eastern limits on sandy habitats in western Illinois. Two of these, Mirabilis hirsuta (hairy umbrella wort) and Opuntia fragilis (fragile prickly pear), are known in Illinois only in Jo Daviess County, and the latter is known only from the Savanna Army Depot. Others, like Polanisia jamesii (James' clammyweed) and Carex tonsa (shaved sedge) have their largest Illinois populations on the Depot. Some of the Depot's animals show a similar pattern. For example, the only population of Lepus townsendii (white-tailed jackrabbits) in Illinois was on the Depot. Unfortunately, the jackrabbits disappeared in recent years, probably due to habitat changes and increased numbers of coyotes.

Perhaps even more significant than the individual plant species are the Depot's natural communities. Most noteworthy are its extensive prairies, savannas, and river dune forest. The savanna habitat, which consists of trees, typically oaks, scattered through a grassland, has almost disappeared from North America. Only about 6,400 acres (2,591 hectares) of tallgrass savanna remain in the United States, about 0.02% of the presettlement total. Prairies have seen similar losses. The Depot, with about 4,500 acres (1,822 hectares) of savanna and prairie, has the most extensive remaining stands of these communities in the state.

The natural communities of the Depot are not pristine, however. For obvious reasons, the Army has vigorously suppressed fires, which are vital for preserving both prairie and savanna from encroaching forests. Cattle have been used to reduce grassy vegetation and therefore reduce fire intensity. Though the cattle probably have slowed forest encroachment, they have also modified the grassland and forest vegetation. We have been uniquely able to document changes in the Depot's vegetation because not long before the Army acquired the land, noted ecologist Henry Allan Gleason, then at the Natural History Survey, published a paper describing the vegetation of the major sand deposits in Illinois, including the region that became the Depot. Overall, we observed that forest cover of the depot has increased, particular in areas that formerly were savanna. In addition, the abundance of some shrubs and grasses has increased, whereas other late successional grasses and forbs that are probably dependent on periodic fires have decreased in abundance.

Still, much of the Savanna Army Depot remains in vegetation that with proper management could recover significantly. Nowhere else in Illinois can one look across a landscape so extensively covered with prairie and savanna. As decisions are being made for the Depot's future, our research provides useful information will help preserve this remarkable remnant of our state's natural heritage.

 


A total of 617 taxa (species, subspecies, varieties, and forms) were found during 1996. Gleason (1910) recorded several other plants that we did not observe in 1996, including: Smilacina racemosa, Smilax ecirrhata, Petalostemum candidum, Asclepias exaltata, Scutellaria parvula / S. leonardii, Liatris cylindracea, Solidago missouriensis, and Parthenium integrifolium. Of the total of 617 taxa, 480 are native species, 3 are questionably native, and 134 are introduced.

Below is an annotated List of Vascular Plants at the Savanna Army Depot. Arranged alphabetically by scientific name. This list includes only species we observed during 1996, except for Polygala verticillata, which was collected in 1993 and Orobanche fasciculata (Orobanchaceae), which was last collected at the Depot in 1908 although suitable habitat is still extant. Under "Scientific Names", the authorities are omitted for brevity; they are included on the voucher specimens cited in Table 2. Under "E/T", E = State Endangered, T = State Threatened, FCC = former Federal Candidate Category 2, ND = Newly Discovered in Illinois and likely to qualify for listing as a state endangered species.

Scientific Name 

Common Name  Family  Native or Introduced  Frequency and Habitat  E/T
Acalypha rhomboidea  Three-seeded Mercury  Euphorbiaceae  native  Occasional in sand forest and in wet-mesic floodplain forest -- 
Acer negundo  Boxelder  Aceraceae  native  Occasional in sand forest, sand savanna, pastureland, and wet-mesic floodplain forest; infrequent in sand prairie  -- 
Acer saccharinum  Silver maple  Aceraceae  native  Abundant in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Acer saccharum  Sugar Maple  Aceraceae  native  Occasional in sand forest  -- 
Achillea millefolium  Yarrow  Asteraceae  introduced  Frequent in sand prairie and sand savanna; occasional in pastureland  -- 
Adiantum pedatum  Maidenhair Fern  Adiantaceae  native  Infrequent in sand forest  -- 
Agalinis tenuifolia  Common Agalinis  Scrophulariaceae native  Infrequent in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Agastache nepetoides  Yellow Giant Hyssop  Lamiaceae  native  Occasional in sand savanna  -- 
Agrimonia gryposepala  Tall Agrimony  Rosaceae  native  Occasional in sand forest and sand savanna  -- 
Agrimonia pubescens  Soft Agrimony  Rosaceae  native  Occasional in sand forest  -- 
Agropyron repens f.aristatum  Quack Grass  Poaceae  introduced  Occasional in sand prairie  -- 
Agropyron repens f.repens  Quack Grass  Poaceae  introduced  Occasional in sand prairie  -- 
Agropyron smithii  Western Wheat Grass  Poaceae  introduced  Occasional in developed land, sand prairie and sand savanna  -- 
Agropyron subsecundum Bearded Wheat Grass  Poaceae  native  Infrequent in sand savanna 
Agrostis gigantea  Redtop  Poaceae  introduced  Infrequent in developed land and sand prairie  -- 
Agrostis hyemalis  Bent Grass  Poaceae  native  Occasional in developed land, sand prairie, and sand savanna  -- 
Alisma plantago-aquatica var. parviflorum  Small-flowered Water Plantain  Alismataceae  native  Occasional in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Alliaria petiolata  Garlic Mustard  Brassicaceae  introduced  Frequent to abundant in sand forest  -- 
Allium canadense  Wild Onion  Liliaceae  native  Occasional in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Alopecurus carolinianus  Common Foxtail  Poaceae  native  Occasional in disturbed sand pond  -- 
Alyssum alyssoides  Pale Allysum  Brassicaceae  introduced  Occasional in developed land and sand prairie  -- 
Amaranthus rudis  Water Hemp  Amaranthaceae  native  Frequent in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Amaranthus spinosus  Spiny Amaranth  Amaranthaceae  introduced  Rare in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Amaranthus tuberculatus  Amaranth  Amaranthaceae  introduced  Frequent in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Ambrosia artemisiifolia  Common Ragweed  Asteraceae  native?  Infrequent in developed land and sand prairie  -- 
Ambrosia psilostachya  Western Ragweed  Asteraceae  native  Common in sand prairie   
Ambrosia trifida  Giant Ragweed  Asteraceae  native  Occasional in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Ammannia coccinea  Tooth-cup  Lythraceae  native  Occasional in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Amorpha canescens  Leadplant  Fabaceae  native  Occasional in sand prairie  -- 
Amorpha fruticosa  False Indigo  Fabaceae  native  Occasional in wet-mesic bottomland forest  -- 
Amphicarpa bracteata  Hog-peanut  Fabaceae  native  Occasional in wet-mesic floodplain forest; infrequent in sand forest  -- 
Andropogon gerardii  Big Bluestem  Poaceae  native  Occasional in sand prairie  -- 
Androsace occidentalis  Rock Jasmine  Primulaceae  native  Frequent in sand prairie and sand savanna  -- 
Anemone canadensis  Meadow Anemone  Ranunculaceae  native  Frequent in border with sand forest and wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Anemone caroliniana  Carolina Anemone  Ranunculaceae  native  Infrequent in sand prairie  -- 
Anemone cylindrica  Thimbleweed  Ranunculaceae  native  Occasional in sand forest  -- 
Anemone quinquefolia  Wood Anemone  Ranunculaceae  native  Infrequent in sand forest  -- 
Anemone virginiana  Tall Anemone  Ranunculaceae  native  Occasional in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Antennaria neglecta  Cat's Foot  Asteraceae  native  Occasional in sand prairie and sand savanna  -- 
Antennaria plantaginifolia  Pussy Toes  Asteraceae  native  Infrequent in sand savanna  -- 
Apios americana  Common Ground-nut  Fabaceae  native  Infrequent in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Apocynum sibiricum  Creeping Dogbane  Apocynaceae  native  Infrequent in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Aquilegia canadensis  Wild Columbine  Ranunculaceae  native  Occasional in sand forest  -- 
Arabis canadensis  Sicklepod  Brassicaceae  native  Infrequent in sand forest  -- 
Arabis glabra  Tower Mustard  Brassicaceae  native  Rare in sand prairie  -- 
Arabis lyrata  Sand Cress  Brassicaceae  native  Common in sand prairie and sand savanna  -- 
Arabis x divaricarpa  Purple Rock Cress  Brassicaceae  native  Infrequent in sand prairie  ND
Aralia nudicaulis  Wild Sarsaparilla  Araliaceae  native  Infrequent in sand forest  -- 
Arctium lappa  Great Burdock  Asteraceae  introduced  Infrequent in sand savanna  -- 
Arctium minus  Common Burdock  Asteraceae  introduced  Occasional in disturbed sand savanna  -- 
Arenaria serpyllifolia  Thyme-leaved Sandwort  Caryophyllaceae  introduced  Frequent in developed land and occasional in sand prairie  -- 
Arisaema dracontium  Green Dragon  Araceae  native  Infrequent in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Arisaema triphyllum  Jack-in-the-Pulpit  Araceae  native  Infrequent in sand forest  -- 
Aristida basiramea  Forktip Three-awn Grass  Poaceae  native  Frequent in sand prairie and sand savanna  -- 
Aristida oligantha  Prairie Three-awn Grass  Poaceae  native  Infrequent in sand prairie and successional field  -- 
Aristida tuberculosa  Beach Three-awn Grass  Poaceae  native  Frequent in sand prairie and sand savana; Infrequent in sand forest  -- 
Artemisia campestris  Wormwood  Asteraceae  native  Occasional in sand forest, sand prairie, and sand savanna  -- 
Artemisia ludoviciana  White Sage  Asteraceae  native  Occasional in sand prairie and sand savanna  -- 
Asclepias amplexicaulis  Sand Milkweed  Asclepiadaceae  native  infrequent in sand prairie  -- 
Asclepias incarnata  Swamp Milkweed  Asclepiadaceae  native  Infrequent in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Asclepias syriaca  Common Milkweed  Asclepiadaceae  native  Infrequent in successional field  -- 
Asclepias tuberosa  Butterflyweed  Asclepiadaceae  native  Rare in sand savanna  -- 
Asclepias verticillata  Horsetail Milkweed  Asclepiadaceae  native  Frequent in sand prairie; occasional in sand savanna; infrequent in pastureland  -- 
Asclepias viridiflora  Tall Green Milkweed Asclepiadaceae  native  Occasional in sand prairie and sand savanna  -- 
Asparagus officinalis  Asparagus  Liliaceae  introduced  Occasional in sand savanna  -- 
Asplenium platyneuron  Ebony Spleenwort  Aspleniaceae  native  Infrequent in sand forest  -- 
Aster cordifolius  Heart-leaved Aster  Asteraceae  native  Infrequent in sand forest  -- 
Aster ericoides  White Prairie Aster  Asteraceae  native  Occasional in sand prairie  -- 
Aster lanceolatus  Panicled Aster  Asteraceae  native  Frequent in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Aster lateriflorus  Starved Aster  Asteraceae  native  Occasional in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Aster linariifolius  Flax-leaved Aster  Asteraceae  native  Occasional in sand forest, sand prairie, and sand savana  -- 
Aster oblongifolius  Aromatic Aster  Asteraceae  native  Infrequent in sand forest and sand prairie  -- 
Aster ontarionis  Ontario Aster  Asteraceae  native  Frequent in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Aster oolentangiensis  Sky Blue Aster  Asteraceae  native  Rare in sand savanna  -- 
Aster pilosus  Hairy Aster  Asteraceae  native  Common in sand prairie and sand savanna   
Aster prenanthoides  Crooked-stemmed Aster  Asteraceae  native  Occasional in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Aster puniceus  Purple-stemmed Aster  Asteraceae  native  Occasional in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Aster sericeus  Western Silvery Aster  Asteraceae  native  Infrequent in sand prairie  -- 
Athyrium filix-feminavar. angustum  Lady Fern  Dryopteridaceae  native  Infrequent in sand forest  -- 
Bacopa rotundifolia  Water Hyssop  Scrophulariaceae native  Rare in natural sand pond  -- 
Barbarea vulgaris  Yellow Rocket  Brassicaceae  introduced  Infrequent in developed land  -- 
Berberis thunbergii  Japanese Barberry  Berberidaceae  introduced  Infrequent in sand forest and sand savanna  -- 
Berteroa incana  Hoary Alyssum  Brassicaceae  introduced  Occasional in developed land, sand prairie and sand savanna  -- 
Besseya bullii  Kitten Tails  Scrophulariaceae native  Occasional in sand forest, sand prairie, and sand savanna 
Betula nigra  River Birch  Betulaceae  native  Occasional in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Bidens cernua  Bur-marigold  Asteraceae  native  Occasional in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Bidens tripartita  Beggar-ticks  Asteraceae  introduced  Occasional in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Bidens vulgata  Tall Beggar-ticks  Asteraceae  native  Occasional in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Boehmeria cylindrica  False Nettle  Urticaceae  native  Occasional in wet-mesic bottomland forest  -- 
Botrychium dissectum  Dissected Grapefern  Ophioglossaceae native  Occasional in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Botrychium virginianum  Rattlesnake Fern  Ophioglossaceae native  Infrequent in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Bouteloua curtipendula  Side-oats Grama Grass  Poaceae  native  Occasional in sand prairie  -- 
Bouteloua gracilis  Blue Grama-grass  Poaceae  native  Rare in sand prairie  ND
Bouteloua hirsuta  Hairy Grama Grass  Poaceae  native  Frequent in sand prairie  -- 
Brassica nigra  Black Mustard  Brassicaceae  introduced  Infrequent in developed land   
Brickellia eupatorioides  False Boneset  Asteraceae  native  Infrequent in sand prairie  -- 
Bromus inermis  Awnless Brome  Poaceae  introduced  Occasional in developed land and sand prairie  -- 
Bromus kalmii  Kalm's Brome  Poaceae  native  Infrequent in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Bromus racemosus  Smooth Chess  Poaceae  introduced  Occasional to frequent in sand prairie and sand savanna  -- 
Bromus tectorum  Downy Chess  Poaceae  introduced  Frequent in developed land and sand prairie and sand savanna  -- 
Bulbostylis capillaris  Autumn Sedge  Cyperaceae  native  Occasional in sand prairie  -- 
Calamovilfa longifolia  Sand-reed  Poaceae  native  Rare in sand savanna  -- 
Callirhoë triangulata  Poppy Mallow  Malvaceae  native  Occasional in sand prairie and sand savanna  -- 
Caltha palustris  Marsh Marigold  Ranunculaceae  native  Rare in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Calystegia sepium  American Bindweed  Convolvulaceae  native  Infrequent in developed land along edge of wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Campanula americana  American Bellflower  Campanulaceae  native  Occasional in wet-mesic bottomland forest  -- 
Cannabis sativa  Marijuana  Cannabinaceae  introduced  Occasional in sand savanna  -- 
Capsella bursa-pastoris  Shepard's Purse  Brassicaceae  introduced  Occasional in developed land  -- 
Cardamine bulbosa  Spring Cress  Brassicaceae  native  Occasional in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Cardamine hirsuta  Spring Cress  Brassicaceae  introduced  Infrequent in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Cardamine parvifloravar. arenicola  Small-flowered Bitter Cress  Brassicaceae  native  Occasional in sand savanna  -- 
Cardamine pensylvanica Pennsylvania Bitter-cress  Brassicaceae  native  Occasional in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Carduus nutans  Musk Thistle  Asteraceae  introduced  Infrequent in successional field  -- 
Carex annectens  Large Yellow Fox Sedge  Cyperaceae  native  Occasional in sand prairie, edge of ponds, and wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Carex bicknellii  Copper-shouldered Oval Sedge  Cyperaceae  native  Frequent in sand prairie and sand savanna  -- 
Carex blanda  Common Wood Sedge  Cyperaceae  native  Occasional in sand forest  -- 
Carex brevior  Plains Oval Sedge  Cyperaceae  native  Frequent in sand prairie  -- 
Carex conjuncta  Green-headed Fox Sedge  Cyperaceae  native  Occasional in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Carex cristatella  Crested Oval Sedge  Cyperaceae  native  Occasional in wet-mesic bottomland forest  -- 
Carex duriuscula  Sedge  Cyperaceae  native  Rare in developed land  -- 
Carex frankii  Bristly Cattail Sedge  Cyperaceae  native  Occasional in wet-mesic bottomland forest and along streams  -- 
Carex gravida  Long-awned Bracted Sedge  Cyperaceae  native  Occasional in developed land and sand prairie  -- 
Carex grayi  Common Bur Sedge  Cyperaceae  native  Occasional in wet mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Carex grisea  Wood Gray Sedge  Cyperaceae  native  Occasional in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Carex hirtifolia  Hairy Wood Sedge  Cyperaceae  native  Occasional in sand forest  -- 
Carex hystericina  Porcupine Sedge  Cyperaceae  native  Occasional in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Carex laeviconica  Long-toothed Lake Sedge  Cyperaceae  native  Rare along edge of ox-bow lake  -- 
Carex lupulina  Common Hop Sedge  Cyperaceae  native  Occasional in edge of pond and wet-mesic floodplain forest -- 
Carex meadii  Mead's Stiff Sedge  Cyperaceae  native  Infrequent in sand prairie and sand savanna  -- 
Carex molesta  Field Oval Sedge  Cyperaceae  native  Occasional in sand prairie  -- 
Carex muhlenbergii  Sand Bracted Sedge Cyperaceae  native  Frequent in sand prairie and sand savanna; occasional in sand forest  -- 
Carex pensylvanica  Common Oak Sedge  Cyperaceae  native  Occasional to frequent in sand forest, sand prairie and sand savanna  -- 
Carex rosea  Curly-styled Wood Sedge  Cyperaceae  native  Occasional in sand forest  -- 
Carex scoparia var.scoparia  Lance-fruited Oval Sedge  Cyperaceae  native  Occasional in sand savanna  -- 
Carex stipata  Common Fox Sedge Cyperaceae  native  Occasional in sand forest  -- 
Carex stricta  Common Tussock Sedge  Cyperaceae  native  Occasional in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Carex tonsa  Shaved Sedge  Cyperaceae  native  Frequent in sand prairie and sand savanna; occasional in sand forest 
Carex tribuloides  Awl-fruited Oval Sedge  Cyperaceae  native  Occasional in edge of pond  -- 
Carex typhina  Common Cattail Sedge  Cyperaceae  native  Infrequent in sand forest  -- 
Carex vulpinoidea  Brown Fox Sedge  Cyperaceae  native  Occasional in developed land  -- 
Carya cordiformis  Bitternut Hickory  Juglandaceae  native  Occasional in sand forest and wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Carya ovata  Shagbark Hickory  Juglandaceae  native  Occasional in sand forest  -- 
Carya tomentosa  Mockernut Hickory  Juglandaceae  native  Occasional in sand forest  -- 
Catalpa speciosa  Northern Catalpa  Bignoniaceae  introduced  Infrequent in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Ceanothus americanus  New Jersey Tea  Rhamnaceae  native  Infrequent in sand savanna  -- 
Ceanothus herbaceus (C. ovatus Redroot  Rhamnaceae  native  Occasional to frequent in sand prairie 
Celastrus scandens  Bittersweet  Celastraceae  native  Occasional in sand forest  -- 
Celtis occidentalis  Hackberry  Ulmaceae  native  Occasional in sand forest and sand savanna Infrequent in sand prairie  -- 
Cenchrus longispinus  Sand Bur  Poaceae  native  Frequent in developed land and occasional in sand prairie  -- 
Centaurea maculosa  Spotted Knapweed  Asteraceae  introduced  Occasional in successional field  -- 
Cephalanthus occidentalis  Buttonbush  Rubiaceae  native  Occasional in wet-mesic bottomland forest  -- 
Cerastium brachypodum Mouse-eared Chickweed  Caryophyllaceae  introduced  Occasional in sand prairie and developed land  -- 
Cerastium vulgatum  Common Mouse-eared Chickweed  Caryophyllaceae  introduced  Occasional in developed land and sand prairie and sand savanna  -- 
Ceratophyllum demersum  Hornwort  Ceratophyllaceae native  Occasional as aquatic in Mississippi River  -- 
Chaenorrhinum minus  Dwarf Snapdragon  Scrophulariaceae introduced  Occasional in developed land  -- 
Chamaecrista fasciculata  Partridge Pea  Fabaceae  native  Occasional in sand prairie and sand savanna  -- 
Chamaesyce geyeri  Geyer's Spurge  Euphorbiaceae  native  Frequent in sand prairie and sand savanna  -- 
Chamaesyce maculata  Spotted Spurge  Euphorbiaceae  native  Occasional in developed land  -- 
Chamaesyce nutans  Eyebane  Euphorbiaceae  native  Occasional in developed land  -- 
Chenopodium ambrosioides  Mexican Tea  Chenopodiaceae introduced  Occasional in developed land and successional field  -- 
Chenopodium gigantospermum  Maple-leaved Goose Foot  Chenopodiaceae native  Infrequent in sand savanna  -- 
Chenopodium pratericola  Goosefoot  Chenopodiaceae native  Occasional in sand prairie, sand savanna and sand forest; infrequent in developed land  -- 
Chenopodium simplex  Maple-leaved Goosefoot  Chenopodiaceae native  Occasional in sand forest and sand savanna  -- 
Chloris verticillata  Windmill Grass  Poaceae  introduced  Occasional in developed land and successional field  -- 
Cicuta maculata  Water Hemlock  Apiaceae  native  Infrequent in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Cinna arundinacea  Common Woodreeed  Poaceae  native  Infrequent in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Circaea lutetiana subsp.canadensis  Enchanter's Nightshade  Onagraceae  native  Occasional in sand forest  -- 
Cirsium arvense  Canada Thistle  Asteraceae  introduced  Infrequent in pastureland  -- 
Cirsium discolor  Field Thistle  Asteraceae  native  Infrequent in wet-mesic bottomland forest  -- 
Cirsium vulgare  Bull Thistle  Asteraceae  introduced  Infrequent in sand savanna  -- 
Claytonia virginica  Spring Beauty  Portulacaceae  native  Frequent in sand forest  -- 
Clematis virginiana  Virgin's Bower  Ranunculaceae  native  Infrequent in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Comandra umbellata  False Toadflax  Santalaceae  native  Occasional in sand prairie and sand savanna  -- 
Commelina erecta  Erect Day-flower  Commelinaceae  native  Occasional in sand forest and sand savanna  -- 
Conium maculatum  Poison Hemlock  Apiaceae  introduced  Infrequent in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Convolvulus arvensis  Field Bindweed  Convolvulaceae  introduced  Occasional in sand prairie  -- 
Conyza canadensis  Horseweed  Asteraceae  native  Frequent in successional field, infrequent in sand savanna  -- 
Coreopsis palmata  Prairie Coreopsis  Asteraceae  native  Infrequent in sand prairie and sand savanna  -- 
Cornus drummondii  Rough-leaved Dogwood  Cornaceae  native  Occasional in sand forest and sand savanna  -- 
Cornus racemosa  Gray Dogwood  Cornaceae  native  Frequent in sand forest, sand savanna, and wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Coronilla varia  Crown Vetch  Fabaceae  introduced  Occasional in developed land, sand prairie, and sand savanna  -- 
Corydalis micrantha  Slender Corydalis  Fumariaceae  native  Occasional in sand forest and sand savanna  -- 
Corylus americana  Hazelnut  Betulaceae  native  Infrequent in sand forest  -- 
Crataegus calpodendron Hawthorn  Rosaceae  native  Occasional in sand forest, sand prairie, and sand savanna  -- 
Crepis tectorum  Hawksbeard  Asteraceae  introduced  Infrequent in sand prairie and successional field  -- 
Crotalaria sagittalis  Rattlebox  Fabaceae  native  Occasional in sand prairie and sand savanna  -- 
Croton glandulosus var.septentrionalis  Sand Croton  Euphorbiaceae  native?  Occasional in sand prairie and sand savanna  -- 
Cryptotaenia canadensis Honewort  Apiaceae  native  Abundant in wet-mesic floodplain forest; occasional in sand forest  -- 
Cycloloma atriplicifolium  Winged Pigweed  Chenopodiaceae native  Occasional in developed land, sand forest, sand prairie, and sand savanna   
Cynoglossum officinale  Common Hound's-tongue  Boraginaceae  introduced  Occasiona in developed land and sand savanna  -- 
Cyperus aristatus  Flatsedge  Cyperaceae  native  Occasional in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Cyperus erythrorhizos  Redroot Flatsedge  Cyperaceae  native  Occasional in wet-mesic bottomland forest  -- 
Cyperus esculentus var.esculentus  Yellow Nutsedge  Cyperaceae  native  Occasional in wet-mesic bottomland forest  -- 
Cyperus filiculmis var.filiculmis  Slender Sand Sedge  Cyperaceae  native  Frequent in sand prairie and sand savnaan; occasional in sand forest  -- 
Cyperus filiculmis var.macilentus  Slender Sand Sedge  Cyperaceae  native  Occasional in sand forest; frequent in sand prairie and sand savanna  -- 
Cyperus grayioides  Gray's Umbrella Sedge  Cyperaceae  native  Occasional in blowouts of sand prairie and sand savanna 
Cyperus odoratus  Flatsedge  Cyperaceae  native  Occasional in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Cyperus schweinitzii  Rough Sand Sedge  Cyperaceae  native  Occasional in sand forest; frequent in sand prairie and sand savanna  -- 
Cystopteris protrusa  Fragile Fern  Dryopteridaceae  native  Occasional in sand forest  -- 
Dactylis glomerata  Orchard Grass  Poaceae  introduced  Occasional in developed land  -- 
Daucus carota  Queen Anne's Lace  Apiaceae  introduced  Occasional in successional field  -- 
Descurainia pinnatasubsp. brachycarpa  Tansy Mustard  Brassicaceae  native  Infrequent in sand prairie, sand savanna, and developed land  -- 
Desmodium canadense  Canadian Tick-trefoil Fabaceae  native  Infrequent in opening in wet-mesic floodplain forest  -- 
Desmodium glutinosum  Pointed Tick Trefoil  Fabaceae  native  Occasional in sand forest  -- 
Desmodium illinoense  Illinois Tick Trefoil  Fabaceae  native  Infrequent in sand prairie  -- 
Dianthus armeria  Deptford Pink  Caryophyllaceae  introduced  Occasional in sand prairie and sand savanna  -- 
Dicentra cucullaria  Dutchman's Breeches  Fumariaceae  native  Infrequent in sand forest  -- 
Digitaria sanguinalis  Hairy Crabgrass  Poaceae  introduced  Occasional in developed land  -- 
Diodia teres  Rough Buttonweed  Rubiaceae  native?  Frequent in sand prairie and sand savanna and occasional in sand forest  -- 
Draba nemorosa var.leiocarpa  Whitlow Grass  Brassicaceae  native  Rare in sand prairie  ND
Draba reptans  Common Whitlow Grass  Brassicaceae  native  Frequent in sand prairie and sand savanna  -- 
Draba verna  Vernal Whitlow Grass  Brassicaceae  introduced  Occasional in developed land  -- 
Dryopteris carthusiana  Spinulose Woodfern  Dryopteridaceae  native  Occasional in sand forest 

 


 

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 Please e-mail your comments to krrobert@illinois.edu

Updated 8 October 1997

 



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