FRESHWATER MUSSEL (UNIONOIDA) GENERA OF THE WORLD

Kevin S. Cummings

Illinois Natural History Survey
Center For Biodiversity
Mollusks
607 East Peabody Dr.
Champaign, IL 61820
ksc@mail.inhs.uiuc.edu

The objective of this page is to illustrate (with photographs) all of the "genera" of freshwater mussels (Unionoida) in the world. The genera included are largely those recognized by Haas (1969) with the exception of the North American fauna, which follow Turgeon, et al. (1998). Other deviations from Haas (1969) will be referenced to the new source of information. If anyone spots any errors or misspellings of type localities, type designations, rivers or other geographic names, please let me know and I will make appropriate changes. I plan on adding information on type species for each genus and a list of currently recognized species/taxa in the near future. An example of the kind of added information can be seen in the account for the genus Castalina. If anyone has any comments on how and what type of data to include in these species list sections, please let me know. I am still playing around with the format. Also understand that these pages (like many on the web) are "works in progress" and the data contained in them should be checked to the primary literature to ensure accuracy. Museum Acronyms used in photo captions follow: Systematic Research Collections - Mollusca.

Literature Cited

All photos copyright: Kevin S. Cummings - 1999.

(A - D) (E - H) (I - L) (M - P) (Q - T) (U - Z)


Acostaea d'Orbigny, 1851 - South America

Acostaea rivolii (Deshayes, 1827)
USNM 120889. Bogota, Colombia.

Type Species: Acostaea guaduasana d'Orbigny 1851 [= Acostaea rivolii (Deshayes, 1827)] (by monotypy).

Original Citation: d'Orbigny, A. 1851. Note sur un nouveau genre de Coquille lamellibranche d'eau douce dédans les riviéde la Nouvelle-Grenade par M. le colonel Acosta. Revue et Magasin de Zoologie Pure et Appliqué 2(3):183-188 + 1 plate. p. 184.

Remarks: Type species of the genus Acostaea incorrectly stated by Subba Rao (1989) to be Mulleria dalyi Smith, 1898.

Literature Cited


Actinonaias Crosse & Fischer, 1886 - North America

Actinonaias ligamentina (Lamarck, 1819)
INHS 10233. Kishwaukee River, Winnebago County, Illinois.

Type Species: Unio sapotalensis Lea, 1841

Literature Cited
Number of Currently Recognized Taxa (9)


Acuticosta Simpson, 1900 - Asia

Type Species: Unio chinensis Lea, 1868 [= Acuticosta chinensis (Lea, 1868)] (Simpson 1900:850).

Original Citation: Simpson, C.T. 1900. Synopsis of the naiades, or pearly fresh-water mussels. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 22(1205):501-1044. [850].

Remarks: Name originally constructed as a subgenus of Parreysia..

Number of Currently Recognized Taxa (4).


Afronaia Haas, 1962 - Africa

Afronaia framesi (Connolly, 1925)
FMNH 114661. Sabie River, South Africa.

Type Species: Indonaia framesi Connolly, 1925 [ = Afronaia framesi (Connolly, 1925) ]

Original Citation:

Literature Cited
Number of Currently Recognized Taxa (5)


Afroparreysia Haas, 1936 - Africa

Type Species: Parreysia lobensis Frierson, 1913

Literature Cited
Number of Currently Recognized Taxa (2)


Alasmidonta Say, 1818 - North America

Alasmidonta marginata Say, 1818
INHS 11754. Blackberry Creek, Kendall County, Illinois.

Type Species: Unio undulata Say, 1817

Literature Cited
Number of Currently Recognized Taxa (12)


Alathyria Iredale, 1934 - Australia

Alathyria jacksoni Iredale, 1934
INHS 11432. Namoi River, New South Wales, Australia.

Type Species: Alathyria jacksoni Iredale, 1934 (by original designation) (McMichael & Hiscock 1958:410; Smith 1992:15).

Original Citation: Iredale, T. 1934. The freshwater mussels of Australia. Australian Zoologist 8:57-78.

Remarks: See McMichael & Hiscock (1958:410) for nomenclatorial notes.

Generic Synonyms: Quaesithyria Iredale, 1943.

Literature Cited
Number of Currently Recognized Taxa (5)


Amblema Rafinesque, 1820 - North America

Amblema plicata (Say, 1817)
INHS 2783. Embarras River, Coles County, Illinois.

Type Species: Amblema costata Rafinesque, 1820


Anodonta Lamarck, 1799 - Africa, Asia, Europe, North America

Anodonta suborbiculata Say, 1831
INHS 7854. Mississippi River, Randolph County, Illinois.

Type Species: Mytilus cygnea Linnaeus, 1758


Anodontites Bruguiere, 1792 - South America

Anodontites trapesialis (Lamarck, 1819)
INHS 16978. Rio Masparro Dr., Barinas, Venezuela.

Type Species: Anodontites crispata Bruguiere, 1792

Literature Cited
Number of Currently Recognized Taxa (28)


Anodontoides Simpson, 1898 - North America

Anodontoides ferussacianus(Lea, 1834)
INHS 8851. Kickapoo Creek, McLean County, Illinois.

Type Species: Anodonta ferussaciana Lea, 1834

Literature Cited
Number of Currently Recognized Taxa (2)


Arcidens Simpson, 1900 - North America

Arcidens confragosus (Say, 1829)
INHS 9459. Mississippi River, Louisa County, Iowa.

Type Species: Alasmodonta confragosa Say, 1829

Literature Cited
Number of Currently Recognized Taxa (1)


Arcidopsis Simpson, 1900 - Asia

Type Species: Unio footei Theobald, 1876


Arconaia Conrad, 1865 - Asia

Arconaia lanceolata (Lea, 1856)
INHS 20155. Tai Hu Lake, Jiangsu Province, China.

Type Species: Triquetra lanceolata Lea, 1856 (by monotypy) (Haas 1969:69).

Original Citation: Conrad, T.A. 1865. Description of a new genus of Unionidae. American Journal of Conchology 1(3):234.

Literature Cited

Number of Currently Recognized Taxa (1)


Arkansia Ortmann & Walker, 1912 - North America

Arkansia wheeleri Ortmann & Walker, 1912
INHS 20133. Ouachita River, Clark County, Arkansas.

Type Species: Arkansia wheeleri Ortmann & Walker, 1912

Literature Cited
Number of Currently Recognized Taxa (1)


Arthopteron de Rochebrune, 1905 - Africa

Type Species: Arthopteron ouassouloui de Rochebrune, 1904

Literature Cited
Number of Currently Recognized Taxa (1)


Aspatharia Bourguignat, 1885 - Africa

Aspatharia rugifera (Dunker, 1858)
INHS 20378. Lokundje River, Cameroon, Africa.

Type Species: Anodonta rugifera Dunker, 1858

Literature Cited
Number of Currently Recognized Taxa (10)


Balwantia Prashad, 1919 - Asia

Type Species: Anodon soleniformis Benson, 1836

Literature Cited
Number of Currently Recognized Taxa (1)


Bartlettia H. Adams, 1866 - South America

Bartlettia stefanensis (Moricand, 1856)
FMNH 120434. Arroyo Guazu, Paraguay.

Type Species: Etheria stefanensis Moricand, 1856 [=Bartlettia stefanensis (Moricand, 1856)] (by monotypy).

Original Citation: Adams, H. 1866. List of land and freshwater shells collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the Upper Amazons, and the River Ucayali, Eastern Peru, with descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866(29):440-445 + 1 plate. p. 444.

Generic Synonyms: Rochanaia Morretes, 1941.

Remarks: Generic author listed as A. Adams by Haas (1969:603). Date for the genus Bartlettia incorrectly given as 1870 by Kabat (1997:386).

Distribution: Rio Huallaga, Ecuador; Arroyo Guazu, Paraguay; Rio Nioaque, Mato Grosso, Brazil; Rio San Alejandro, Huanuco, Peru (Haas 1969:604).

Literature Cited
Number of Currently Recognized Taxa (1)


Barynaias Crosse & Fischer, 1893 - Central America

Type Species: Unio pigerrimus Crosse & Fischer, 1893

Literature Cited
Number of Currently Recognized Taxa (5)


Cafferia Simpson, 1900 - Africa

Type Species: Unio caffer Krauss, 1848

Literature Cited
Number of Currently Recognized Taxa (1)


Callonaia Simpson, 1900 - South America

Callonaia duprei (Recluz, 1842)
BMNH 1965.185. [Amazon River].

Type Species: Castalia duprei Récluz, 1842 (by monotypy).

Original Citation: Simpson, C.T. 1900. Synopsis of the naiades, or pearly fresh-water mussels. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 22(1205):501-1044.

Distribution: Great Lakes of Para, Brazil (Simpson 1990:867).

Literature Cited
Number of Currently Recognized Taxa (1)


Castalia Lamarck, 1819 - South America

Castalia cordata H & A. Adams, 1857
BMNH 1965.198.1-2. British Guyana [=Guyana].

Type Species: Castalia ambigua Lamarck, 1819 (by monotypy) (Haas 1969:534).

Original Citiation: Lamarck, M. le C. de. 1819. Castalie, Les Nayades. Histoire Naturelle des Animaux sans Vertebres 6(1):66-89 [343 pp. total]. p. 66.

Remarks: Simpson (1900:863) placed members of this genus in Tetraplodon Spix, 1827 because he said Castalia was pre-occupied in Vermes.

Generic Synonym: Tetraplodon Spix, 1827

Literature Cited
Number of Currently Recognized Taxa (12)


Castaliella Simpson, 1900 - South America

Castaliella sulcata (Krauss, 1849)
SMF 3784. Maroini River, Suriname (PARATYPE).

Type Species: Castalia sulcata Krauss, 1849.

Original Citiation: Simpson, C.T. 1900. Synopsis of the naiades, or pearly fresh-water mussels. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 22(1205):501-1044. p. 866.

Distribution: Guyana and Suriname (Haas 1969:534).

Literature Cited
Number of Currently Recognized Taxa (1)


Castalina Ihering, 1891 - South America

Castalina psammoica (d'Orbigny, 1835)
FMNH 21818. Rio de la Plata, Buenos Aires, Argetina.

Type Species: Castalina martensi Ihering, 1891.

Original Citiation: von Ihering, H. 1891. Anodonta und Glabaris. Zoologischer Anzeiger 14(380):474-484. p. 478.

Distribution: Rio Piracicaba, Rio Tiete, Rio Parana, Rio Pardo, Rio Grande, and tributaries of the Rio de La Plata, Brazil (Simpson 1900:865-866; Haas 1969:532-533).

Literature Cited
Number of Currently Recognized Taxa (5)


Caudiculatus Simpson, 1900 - Asia

Type Species: Unio caudiculatus von Martens, 1866

Number of Currently Recognized Taxa (1)


Chambarida Bourguignat, 1890 - Africa

Type Species: Chambardia letourneuxi Bourguignat, 1890

Literature Cited
Number of Currently Recognized Taxa (1)


Chamberlainia Simpson, 1900 - Asia

Chamberlainia hainesiana (Lea, 1856)
FMNH 33007. Me Ping River, Kam Peng Pet Province, Siam.

Type Species: Unio hainesianus Lea, 1856

Literature Cited
Number of Currently Recognized Taxa (1)


Chevonaias Olsson & Wurtz, 1951 - South America

Type Species: Chevronaias colombiana Olsson & Wurtz, 1951


Coelatura Conrad, 1853 - Africa

Type Species: Unio egyptiacus Cailliaud, 1827


Contradens Haas, 1913 - Asia

Contradens ascia (Hanley, 1856)
FMNH 162642. Thailand.

Type Species: Unio contradens Lea, 1838

Number of Currently Recognized Taxa (9)


Cristaria Schumacher, 1817 - Asia

Cristaria discoidea (Lea, 1834)
FMNH 21542. Vietnam.

Type Species: Cristaria tuberculata Schumacher, 1817


Ctenodesma Simpson, 1900 - Asia

Ctenodesma borneensis (Issel, 1874)
FMNH 116932. Gomantong, Sandakan, Borneo.

Type Species: Unio borneensis Issel, 1874

Number of Currently Recognized Taxa (2)


Cucumerunio Iredale, 1934 - Australia

Cucumerunio novaehollandiae (Gray, 1834)
INHS 20378. Bex Hill, near Lismore, New South Wales, Australia.

Type Species: Unio novaehollandiae Gray, 1834 [=Cucumerunio novaehollandiae (Gray, 1834)] (by original designation) (McMichael & Hiscock 1958:472; Smith 1992:16).

Original Citation: Iredale, T. 1934. The freshwater mussels of Australia. Australian Zoologist 8:57-78.

Remarks: See McMichael & Hiscock (1958:472) for nomenclatorial notes. Simpson (1900:893) incorrectly spelled the genus as Cucumeria (latter corrected in Simpson 1914).

Generic Synonyms: Cucumaria Conrad, 1853. Non Cucumaria Blainville, 1830 (Echinodermata) or Lesson 1831 (Echinodermata).

Literature Cited
Number of Currently Recognized Taxa (1)


Cumberlandia Ortmann, 1912 - North America

Cumberlandia monodonta (Say, 1829)
INHS 7445. Green River, Warren County, Kentucky.

Type Species: Unio monodonta Say, 1829


Cuneopsis Simpson, 1900 - Asia

Cuneopsis heudei (Heude, 1874)
FMNH 21780. Niho River, China.

Type Species: Unio celtiformis Heude, 1874


Cyclonaias Pilsbry, 1922 - North America

Cyclonaias tuberculata (Rafinesque, 1820)
INHS 4078. Tippecanoe River, Fulton County, Indiana.

Type Species: Obliquaria (Rotundaria) tuberculata Rafinesque, 1920


Cyprogenia Agassiz, 1852 - North America

Cyprogenia stegaria (Rafinesque, 1820)
INHS 20422. Wabash River, Posey County, Indiana.

Type Species: Unio irroratus Lea, 1828


Cyrtonaias Crosse & Fischer, 1894 - Central America

Cyrtonaias umbrosus (Lea, 1856)
FMNH 11646. Rio Papaloapan, Vera Cruz, Mexico.

Type Species: Unio berlandierii Lea, 1857


Diaurora Cockerell, 1900 - Asia

Type Species: Unio auroreus Heude, 1883


Diplodon Spix, 1827 - South America

Diplodon granosus (Bruguiere, 1792)
INHS 14954. Rio Guanare, Bolivar, Venezuela.

Type Species: Unio ellipticus Spix, 1827


Diplodontites Marshall, 1922 - South America

Type Species: Diplodontites cookei Marshall, 1922


Discomya Simpson, 1900 - Asia

Type Species: Unio radulosus Drouet & Chaper, 1892


Disconaias Fischer & Crosse, 1894 - Central America

Disconaias discus (Lea, 1838)
INHS 21704. Moctezuma River, Mexico.

Type Species: Unio discus Lea, 1838

Remarks: The date on this genus needs to be verified as I have seen Crosse & Fischer, 1893 also used [KSC 3/99].


Dromus Simpson, 1900 - North America

Dromus dromas (Lea, 1834)
INHS 1638. Cumberland River, Tennessee.

Type Species: Unio dromas Lea, 1834


FRESHWATER MUSSEL (UNIONOIDA) GENERA OF THE WORLD

(A - D) (E - H) (I - L) (M - P) (Q - T) (U - Z)