Annotated checklist of the aquatic and terrestrial Annelida
(oligochaetes, leeches, branchiobdellidans, and aeolosomatidans)
of Great Smoky Mountains National Park, North Carolina and Tennessee, USA


Introduction.
Unless otherwise noted, all species listed here have been reported in the published literature (full citations for literature including these records are provided in the "Literature Cited" link from the navigation bar at the bottom of this page).

Species preceded by a single asterisk (*) were reported by Whitley (1982) for the states of North and/or South Carolina; unfortunately, more specific distributional information (county, drainage, or locality data) was not provided for these species, in that publication, and specimens were not retained for future reference or verification.

Two-letter postal code(s) following a listing [e.g., NC, SC, TN] indicate(s) the state(s) from which they have been documented in the published literature. Postal codes preceded by a question mark (?) are records thought to be valid, but need verification from the literature. Accounts for terrestrial oligochaetes followed by GRSM-JWR(1972) and/or GRSM-SWJ(2000) are Park records documented in publications by John W. Reynolds (1972) and/or Samuel W. James (2000), respectively. Additional records of earthworms occurring in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee (and a few reported from sites in the Park) are noted in Reynolds (1971, 1972, 1974, 1977a,b, 1978, 1980, 1994, 2001), Reynolds and Reeves (2004), Reynolds et al. 1974), and Reeves and Reynolds (1999).

Species noted with a 'W' are considered to be widespread in distribution in North America, and thought likely to occur in Great Smoky Mountains National Park and surrounding states.

Species noted with a superscript - I - are considered to be non-native, introduced species.

Generic and species names in bold followed by 'GRSM' are known to occur in the Park, with pertinent authority (citation), collector(s), and/or location underlined when available.

Full citations for papers referenced on this page / other pages associated with this website, and for the author(s) and date(s) associated with each of the species accounts, below, can be found via the link "Literature Cited" in the navigator bar at the bottom of this page.


In March 2004, J.W. Reynolds and M.J. Wetzel published a paper entitled 'Terrestrial Oligochaeta (Annelida: Clitellata) in North America north of Mexico' in the journal, Megadrilogica [Vol. 9(11): 71-98]. In that paper, the status and distribution of terrestrial Oligochaeta in North America north of Mexico based upon records published in the literature were presented; 161 species representing 37 genera in 10 families were listed -- 116 species considered native, and 45 considered introduced. The paper also summarized the global biogeography of terrestrial oligochaetes, discussed native and introduced species, habitat requirements, and barriers to migration of the group, and presented recommendations for collection, preservation, curation, and identification of specimens, nomenclature, and a review of pertinent literature. The scientific binomial, authority(ies), recent synonymies, and published state and provincial distributions were provided for each species. Common names referenced in the literature were associated with the scientific nomenclature for 33 species. Aquatic and terrestrial research on the oligochaetes occurring in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, associated with the ATBI program being underwritten by DLIA, was also summarized in that paper.

Reynolds and Wetzel (2008) [in Megadrilogica Vol. 12(12): 157-208] presented an update of their 2004 paper, expanding the scope of geographical coverage to include Mexico, Puerto Rico, Hawaii, and Bermuda. This increased the number of earthworms known to occur in North America to 253 species representing 59 genera in the same 10 families; of these, 186 species are considered native to North America, while 67 are considered to be introduced. The next update of this paper is projected for publication in late 2011.


This website and list is a working document. Many specimens that have been collected, processed, and mounted from samples taken in the Park since 1999 have been sexually immature, incomplete, or otherwise unidentifiable. As time permits, I wilI be working with colleagues who have a better taxonomic expertise with some of the species (e.g., Lumbriculidae and Enchytraeidae) than I do; hopefully, many of the identification issues with these specimens can be resolved and thus be added to the list, below. Information pertaining to the distribution of aquatic as well as terrestrial oligochaetes and other annelids occurring in or adjacent to Great Smoky Mountains National Park will be added as it becomes available, and as time permits.



PHYLUM ANNELIDA

- - - - - - - - CLASS POLYCHAETA - - - - - - - -

Order Aeolosomatida

FAMILY AEOLOSOMATIDAE Beddard, 1895

Genus Aeolosoma Ehrenberg, 1828 - GRSM
*Aeolosoma headleyi Beddard, 1888
*Aeolosoma hemprichi Ehrenberg, 1828
*Aeolosoma leidyi Cragin, 1887
*Aeolosoma tenebrarum Vejdovsky, 1880
*Aeolosoma variegatum Vejdovsky, 1884 - W

- - - - - - - - CLASS CLITELLATA - - - - - - - -

Order Branchiobdellida Holt, 1965

FAMILY BRANCHIOBDELLIDAE (Grube, 1851)

The phylogeny, nomenclature, authority, date, and state distributional records for branchiobdellidans occurring in North Carolina, Tennesssee, and South Carolina that are presented in this list conform with the information recently published by Gelder et al. (2002). Although we have obtained branchiobdellidans from crayfishes collected at several sites in the Park (1999-2005), they have yet to be identified. Sites in the Park from which these branchiobdellidans have been collected are noted elsewhere on this project website (see "Site Map, Locality Information" via the navigator bar at the bottom of this page). Several branchiobdellidans also have been collected from Rainbow Cave (Blount Co., TN, 23 October 1999) by W.K. Reeves; all specimens were hosted by one crayfish specimen, Cambarus bartonii bartonii.

A minigrant from DLIA to support a preliminary inventory of branchiobdellidans occurring in the Park was awarded to Dr. Stuart Gelder and Bronwyn Williams in 2010. In their report to DLIA, summarizing their discoveries, they listed 10 species in five genera from 15 sites [annotated with 'G&W2010', below], along with the names of six host crayfishes from which branchiobdellidans were obtained. Their findings are summarized on the DLIA website, HERE.
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Subfamily Bdellodrilinae Holt, 1986

Genus Bdellodrilus Moore, 1895
Bdellodrilus illuminatus (Moore, 1894) - NC, TN; GRSM: G&W2010

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Subfamily Branchiobdellinae Goodnight, 1940

Genus Ankyrodrilus Holt, 1965
Anyrodrilus koronaeus Holt, 1965 - TN
Anyrodrilus legaeus Holt, 1965 - TN

Genus Xironogiton Ellis, 1919
Xironogiton instabilis (Moore, 1893) - NC, TN

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Subfamily Cambarincolinae Goodnight, 1940 Holt, 1986

Genus Cambarincola Ellis, 1912
Cambarincola alienus Holt, 1963 - TN
Cambarincola chirocephalus Ellis, 1919 - TN
Cambarincola fallax Hoffman 1963 - NC, SC, TN
Cambarincola heterognathus Hoffman 1963 - NC, TN; GRSM: G&W2010
Cambarincola holti Hoffman 1963 - TN
Cambarincola ingens Hoffman 1963 - NC, TN; GRSM: G&W2010
Cambarincola heterognathus Hoffman 1963 - NC, TN
Cambarincola leptadenus Holt, 1973 - TN
Cambarincola marthae Holt, 1973 - TN
Cambarincola osceolai Hoffman 1963 - NC, SC
Cambarincola philadelphicus (Leidy, 1851) - NC, SC, TN; GRSM: G&W2010
Cambarincola virginicus Hoffman 1963 - SC
Cambarincola vitreus Ellis, 1919 - NC, SC

Genus Ellisodrilus Holt, 1960
Ellisodrilus carronamus Holt, 1988 - TN
Ellisodrilus clitellatus Holt, 1960 - KY, TN

Genus Oedipodrilus Holt, 1967
Oedipodrilus anisognathus Holt, 1988 - TN; GRSM: G&W2010
Oedipodrilus macbaini (Holt, 1955) - TN
Oedipodrilus oedipus Holt, 1967 - TN

Genus Pterodrilus Moore, 1895
Pterodrilus alcicornus Moore, 1894 - NC, TN; GRSM: G&W2010
Pterodrilus annulatus Gelder, 1996 - TN
Pterodrilus cedrus Holt, 1968 - TN
Pterodrilus choritonamus Holt, 1968 - TN
Pterodrilus hobbsi Holt, 1968 - NC, TN; GRSM: G&W2010
Pterodrilus simondsi Holt, 1968 - NC, TN

Genus Sathodrilus Holt, 1968
Sathodrilus carolinensis Holt, 1968 - SC

Genus Tettodrilus Holt, 1968
Tettodrilus friaufi Holt, 1968 - TN

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Subfamily Xironodrilinae Brinkhurst & Gelder, 2001

Genus Xironodrilus Ellis, 1919
Xironodrilus appalachius Goodnight, 1943 - VA, NC/TN; GRSM: G&W2010
Xironodrilus bashariae Holt & Weigl, 1979 - NC
Xironodrilus formosus Ellis, 1919 - TN
Xironodrilus pulcherrimus (Moore, 1894) - NC


OLIGOCHAETOUS CLITELLATA
Superorder Microdrili
Order Lumbriculida

FAMILY LUMBRICULIDAE

Numerous as-yet unidentified lumbriculid specimens have been collected from
a diversity of localities within the Park.

Genus Eclipidrilus Eisen, 1881
Eclipidrilus asymmetricus (Smith, 1896)
*Eclipidrilus daneus Cook, 1966 - SC
*Eclipidrilus palustris (Smith, 1900) - SC

Genus Kincaidiana Altman, 1936
*Kincaidiana freidris Cook, 1965
*Kincaidiana hexatheca Altman, 1936

Genus Lumbriculus Grube, 1844
*Lumbriculus variegatus (Müller, 1774)

Genus Martinidrilus Fend & Lenat, 2007
Martinidrilus arenosus Fend & Lenat, 2007 - NC
Martinidrilus carolinensis Fend & Lenat, 2007 - NC; GRSM: Forney Creek (28 April 2003)

Genus Pararhynchelmis Fend & Lenat, 2010
Pararhynchelmis murdocki Fend & Lenat, 2010 - VA

Genus Rhynchelmis Hoffmeister, 1843
*Rhynchelmis elrodi Smith & Dickey, 1918 - ?NC
[= ?Rhynchelmis glandula Altman, 1936]

Rhynchelmis (Rhynchelmoides) bolinensis Fend & Lenat, 2010 - NC
Rhynchelmis (Rhynchelmoides) croatanensis Fend & Lenat, 2010 - NC

Genus Pilaridrilus Fend & Lenat, 2007
Pilaridrilus uliginosus Fend & Lenat, 2007 - NC, VA

Genus Stylodrilus Claparède, 1862
Stylodrilus wahkeenensis Rodriguez & Coates, 1996 - TN; GRSM: Little River, near Elkmont

Genus Trichodrilus Claparède, 1862
Trichodrilus allegheniensis Cook, 1971 - TN

Order Haplotaxida
Suborder Haplotaxina

FAMILY HAPLOTAXIDAE

Genus Haplotaxis Hoffmeister, 1843
*Haplotaxis cf. gordioides (Hartmann, 1821) - NC, TN
[?= Haplotaxis emissarius (Forbes, 1890)];
[?= Haplotaxis forbesi Smith, 1918];
[?= Haplotaxis ichthyophagous Gates, 1971]

Order Enchytraeida
Suborder Enchytraeina
Superfamily Enchytraeoidea

FAMILY ENCHYTRAEIDAE

Genus Achaeta Vejdovsky, 1877
Achaeta sp. [species indeterminate] - NC, TN

Genus Barbidrilus Loden & Locy, 1980
Barbidrilus paucisetus Loden & Locy, 1980 - NC

Genus Henlea Michaelsen, 1899
Henlea ventriculosa (d'Udekem, 1854) Welch, 1914 - NC

Order Tubificida
Suborder Tubificina

Superfamily Tubificoidea

FAMILY OPISTOCYSTIDAE

Genus Crustipellis Harman & Loden, 1978
Crustipellis tribranchiata (Harman, 1970) - NC

FAMILY NAIDIDAE

All taxa in the former family, Tubificidae, are now included within the family Naididae (see Erseus, Wetzel, and Gustavsson 2008).

Subfamily Naidinae

Genus Allonais Sperber, 1948
Allonais inaequalis (Stephenson, 1911)
Allonais pectinata (Stephenson, 1910)

Note: The status of the genus Allonais in North America was recently re-evaluated by R.D. Kathman and M.J. Wetzel [Kathman and Wetzel 2003: Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 116(3): 548-556]; in that paper, previous identifications of North American specimens as A. paraguayensis (Michaelsen, 1905) [including our own] were determined to be incorrect. After observation of numerous Allonais specimens, it was determined that A. paraguayensis has not yet been collected in North America, and that, based upon examination of specimens in the genus Allonais that had been collected in North America, A. pectinata is currently known only from material collected in Louisiana. All other Allonais specimens examined during this study are in fact A. inaequalis,with distributional records now reported from Florida, Louisiana, New Jersey, and Ohio.

Genus Amphichaeta Tauber, 1879
*Amphichaeta americana Chen, 1944 - NC, SC

Genus Arcteonais Piguet, 1928
*Arcteonais lomondi (Martin, 1907)

Genus Bratislavia Kosel, 1976
*Bratislavia unidentata (Harman, 1973) - NC

Genus Chaetogaster von Baer, 1827
*Chaetogaster diaphanus (Gruithuisen, 1828) - W
*Chaetogaster diastrophus (Gruithuisen, 1828) - W
Chaetogaster limnaei von Baer, 1827 - W

Genus Dero Oken, 1915
[note: the subgeneric names of Aulophorus, Dero, and Allodero have not been included below]

*Dero flabelliger (Stephenson, 1931) - NC
*Dero furcata (Müller, 1773)
*Dero vaga (Leidy, 1880)
*Dero digitata (Müller, 1773) - TN; W
Dero lodeni Brinkhurst, 1986
*Dero nivea Aiyer, 1930 - W
*Dero obtusa d'Udekem, 1835 - TN; W
Dero pectinata Aiyer, 1930
*Dero trifida Loden, 1979 - NC

Genus Haemonais Bretscher, 1900
*Haemonais waldvogeli Bretscher, 1896 - W

Genus Nais Müller, 1773
*Nais barbata Müller, 1773 - TN; W
*Nais behningi Michaelsen, 1923 - W; GRSM
*Nais communis Piguet, 1906 - NC, SC, TN; W; GRSM
Nais elinguis Müller, 1773
*Nais pardalis Piguet, 1906 - W
*Nais pseudobtusa Piguet, 1906
*Nais simplex Piguet, 1906 - GRSM
*Nais variabilis Piguet, 1906 - SC; W; GRSM

Genus Ophidonais Gervais, 1838
*Ophidonais serpentina (Müller, 1773) - W

Genus Paranais Czerniavsky, 1880
*Paranais frici Hrabe, 1941 - W; GRSM
[= Wapsa mobilis Liang, 1958]
*Paranais litoralis (Müller, 1773)

Genus Slavina Vejdovsky, 1883
*Slavina appendiculata (d'Udekem, 1855) - NC,SC; W; GRSM
S. appendiculata occurs in Europe, North and South America, southern and eastern Asia, Africa, and New Zealand, and probably can be considered a cosmopolitan species; it is widespread in North America.

Genus Specaria Sperber, 1939
*Specaria josinae (Vejdovsky, 1883) - SC; W

Genus Stephensoniana Cernosvitov, 1938
Stephensoniana trivandrana (Aiyer, 1926)

Genus Stylaria Lamarck, 1816
*Stylaria lacustris (Linnaeus, 1767) - SC; W
[= Stylaria fossularis ] Leidy, 1852)

Genus Uncinais Levinson, 1884
Uncinais uncinata (Ørsted, 1842)

Genus Vejdovskyella Michaelsen, 1903
*Vejdovskyella comata (Vejdovsky, 1883) - NC, SC; W

Subfamily Pristininae

Genus Pristina Ehrenberg, 1828
*Pristina acuminata Liang, 1958

*Pristina aequiseta Michaelsen, 1900 - GRSM
[= Pristina evelinae Marcus, 1943]
[= Pristina foreli Piguet, 1906)
*Pristina bilobata (Bretscher, 1903)
*Pristina breviseta Bourne, 1891
Pristina jenkinae (Stephenson, 1931) - NC; W; GRSM
*Pristina leidyi Smith, 1896 - SC, TN; W; GRSM
*Pristina notopora Cernosvitov, 1937
Pristina osborni Walton, 1906) - W; GRSM
*Pristina plumaseta Turner, 1935 - W
*Pristina proboscidea Beddard, 1896
*Pristina sima Marcus, 1944
*Pristina synclites Stephenson, 1925

Please Note: the genus name Pristinella, established by Brinkhurst (1985),
was suppressed by Collado and Schmelz (2000).

Subfamily Tubificinae

Genus Aulodrilus Bretscher, 1899
*Aulodrilus americanus Brinkhurst & Cook, 1966 - W
*Aulodrilus limnobius Bretscher, 1899 - NC, SC, TN
Aulodrilus paucichaeta Brinkhurst & Barbour, 1985 - ?NC
*Aulodrilus pigueti Kowalewski, 1914 - NC, TN; W
*Aulodrilus pluriseta (Piguet, 1906)

Genus Haber Holmquist, 1978; emended Brinkhurst, 1981
Haber speciosis (Hrabe, 1931) - SC

Genus Ilyodrilus Eisen, 1879
*Ilyodrilus templetoni (Southern, 1909) - W

Genus Isochaetides Hrabe, 1966; emmend. Brinkhurst, 1981
Isochaetides curvisetosus (Brinkhurst & Cook, 1966) - NC; W
Isochaetides freyi (Brinkhurst, 1965) - NC, TN; W

Genus Limnodrilus Claparede, 1862
*Limnodrilus cervix Brinkhurst, 1963 - W
*Limnodrilus claparedeianus Ratzel, 1868 - W
*Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri Claparede, 1862 - W; GRSM
*Limnodrilus maumeensis Brinkhurst & Cook, 1966
*Limnodrilus profundicola (Verrill, 1871)
Limnodrilus rubripenis Loden, 1977 - NC
*Limnodrilus udekemianus Claparede, 1862 - W

Genus Potamothrix Vejdovsky & Mrázek, 1902
*Potamothrix hammoniensis (Michaelsen, 1901)
*Potamothrix moldaviensis Vejdovsky & Mrázek, 1902
*Potamothrix vejdovskyi (Hrabe, 1941)

Genus Quistadrilus Brinkhurst, 1981
*Quistadrilus multisetosus (Smith, 1900) - W; GRSM

Genus Spirosperma Eisen, 1879
Spirosperma carolinensis (Brinkhurst, 1965) - NC, SC
Spirosperma nikolskyi (Lastockin & Sokolskaya, 1953) - TN
Spirosperma ferox Eisen, 1879 - TN, GRSM
[= ?Peloscolex variegatus Leidy, 1851; sensu Brinkhurst, 1962]
[= Peloscolex oregonensis Brinkhurst, 1965]
[= Embolocephalus alaskensis Holmquist, 1979]
[= Embolocephalus confusus Holmquist, 1979]
Genus Tubifex Lamarck, 1816
*Tubifex tubifex (Müller, 1774) - W

Genus Varichaetadrilus Brinkhurst & Kathman, 1983
*Varichaetadrilus angustipenis (Brinkhurst & Cook, 1966) - NC, TN
*Varichaetadrilus psammophilus (Loden, 1977) - TN

Subfamily Rhyacodrilinae

Genus Bothrioneurum Stolc, 1888
*Bothrioneurum vejdovskyanum Stolc, 1888

Genus Branchiura Beddard, 1892
*Branchiura sowerbyi Beddard, 1892 - W; I

Genus Rhizodrilus Smith, 1900
Rhizodrilus lacteus Smith, 1900 - SC

Genus Rhyacodrilus Bretscher, 1901
*Rhyacodrilus coccineus (Vejdovsky, 1875)
*Rhyacodrilus montanus (Brinkhurst, 1965)
Rhyacodrilus sodalis (Eisen, 1879) - TN
Rhyacodrilus subterraneus Hrabe, 1963 - NC; GRSM


Order Opisthopora
Suborder Lumbricina

Superfamily Glossoscolecoidea

FAMILY GLOSSOSCOLECIDAE

Genus Pontoscolex Gates, 1974
Pontoscolex corethrurus (F.R. Müller, 1856) - seU.S.

Superfamily Lumbricoidea

FAMILY KOMAREKIONIDAE

Genus Komarekiona Gates, 1974
Komarekiona eatoni Gates, 1974 - NC, TN, seU.S.

FAMILY LUMBRICIDAE

Genus Allolobophora Eisen, 1873
Allolobophora chlorotica (Savigny, 1826) I - NC, TN, seU.S.; GRSM-JWR(1972); GRSM-SWJ(2000)

Genus Allolobophoridella Mrsic, 1990
Allolobophoridella eiseni (Levinsen, 1884) I - TN;

Genus Aporrectodea Örley, 1885
Aporrectodea longa (Ude, 1885) I - NC, TN, seU.S.
Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) I - NC, TN, seU.S.
Aporrectodea trapezoides (Dugès, 1828) I - NC, TN, seU.S.
Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen, 1874) I - NC, TN, seU.S.
Aporrectodea turgida (Eisen, 1873) I - NC, TN, seU.S.

Genus Bimastos H. Moore, 1893
Bimastos beddardi (Michaelsen, 1891) - SC, TN
Bimastos gieseleri (Ude, 1895) - TN
Bimastos heimburgeri (Smith, 1928) - NC, SC, TN
Bimastos longicinctus (Smith & Gittins, 1915) - NC, SC, TN; GRSM-JWR(1972); GRSM-SWJ(2000)
Bimastos palustris Moore, 1895 - NC, TN
Bimastos parvus (Eisen, 1874) - NC, SC, TN
Bimastos tumidus (Eisen, 1874) - NC, SC, TN
Bimastos zeteki (Smith & Gittins, 1915) - NC, SC, TN; GRSM-JWR(1972); GRSM-SWJ(2000)

Genus Dendrobaena Eisen, 1873
Dendrobaena octaedra (Savigny, 1826) I - NC, SC, TN; GRSM-JWR(1972)

Genus Dendrodrilus Omodeo, 1956
Dendrodrilus rubidus (Savigny, 1826) I - NC, SC, TN; W; GRSM; Several specimens
of D. rubidus were collected from Gregory's Cave, GRSM, Blount County, TN, in 1998 and
1999; these records are noted in Reeves & Reynolds (1999).

Genus Eisenia Malm, 1877
Eisenia fetida [foetida] Savigny, 1826 I - SC; W

Genus Eiseniella Michaelsen, 1900
Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826) I - NC, TN; W;

Genus Eisenoides Gates, 1969
Eisenoides carolinensis (Michaelsen, 1910) - NC, SC, TN; GRSM-SWJ(2000)
Eisenoides lönnbergi (Michaelsen, 1894) - NC, SC, TN

Genus Lumbricus Linnaeus, 1758
Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 I - NC, SC; W;
Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 I - NC, SC; W;

Genus Murchieona Gates, 1978
Murchieona muldali (Omodeo, 1956) I - TN;

Genus Octolasion Örley, 1885
Octolasion cyaneum (Savigny, 1826) I - NC, SC, TN; W; GRSM-JWR(1972)
Octolasion tyrtaeum Hoffmeister, 1843 I - NC, SC, TN; W; GRSM (unpublished record: NC, Swain Co., Hurel Creek, 7 Oct 2003, colls.: J.Vaughn, B.Nichols, & C.Parker; ID by JWR)

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Superfamily Megascolecoidea

FAMILY ACANTHODRILIDAE

Genus Diplocardia Garman, 1888
Diplocardia bivesculata Murchie, 1961- SC
Diplocardia caroliniana Eisen, 1898 - NC, TN
Diplocardia communis Garman, 1888 - NC
Diplocardia eiseni (Michaelsen, 1894) - SC
Diplocardia farmvillensis Gates, 1977 - NC
Diplocardia gatesi Murchie, 1965 - NC
Diplocardia gracilis Gates, 1943 - TN
Diplocardia longa Moore, 1905 - NC

Diplocardia michaelseni Eisen, 1899 - NC, SC, TN
Diplocardia ornata Gates, 1943 - TN
Diplocardia singularis (Ude, 1893) - NC, SC, TN; GRSM-JWR(1972); GRSM-SWJ(2000)
Diplocardia udei (Eisen, 1899) - NC, SC, TN
Diplocardia verrucosa Ude, 1985 - TN

Genus Microscolex Rosa, 1887
Microscolex dubius (Fletcher, 1887) - NC, SC, TN
Microscolex phosphoreus (Duges, 1837) - NC, TN
[= Microscolex hempeli Smith, 1896]

FAMILY MEGASCOLECIDAE

Genus Amynthas Kinberg, 1867
Amynthas agrestis (Goto & Hatai, 1899) I - NC, SC, TN;
Amynthas diffringens (Baird, 1869) I - NC, SC, TN; GRSM-JWR(1972) [as Pheretima diffringens]
Amynthas hawayanus (Rosa, 1891) I - NC, SC, TN;
Amynthas hilgendorfi (Michaelsen, 1892) I - SC, TN;
Amynthas hupeiensis (Michaelsen, 1895) I - NC, SC, TN;
Amynthas minimus (Horst, 1893) I - NC, SC;

Genus Metaphire Sims and Easton, 1972
Metaphire levis (Horst, 1893) - I - - NC, TN, seU.S.

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Superfamily Ocnerodriloidea

FAMILY OCNERODRILIDAE

Genus Eukerria Michaelsen, 1835
Eukerria saltensis (Beddard, 1892) I - NC, seU.S.

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Superfamily Sparganophiloidea

FAMILY SPARGANOPHILIDAE

Genus Sparganophilus Benham, 1892
Sparganophilus eiseni Smith, 1895 - NC, TN, seU.S.; GRSM (James 2000)
Sparganophilus helenae Reynolds, 1980 - NC, seU.S.
Sparganophilus komareki Reynolds, 1980 - NC, seU.S.
Sparganophilus kristinae Reynolds, 1980 - NC, seU.S.
Sparganophilus pearsei Reynolds, 1975 - NC, seU.S.
Sparganophilus tennesseensis Reynolds, 1977 - NC, TN, seU.S.


SUBCLASS HIRUDINIDA
Order Rhynchobdellida

[Note: Distributional records for leeches in North Carolina and/or Tennessee (below) were taken from Klemm (1985, 1995). As mentioned above, Don Klemm and Bill Moser were the primary systematists who focused on the leech fauna of the Park during surveys they conducted in September 2000, April 2002, and again in 2003). At the annual DLIA / ATBI conference in Gatlinburg TN (5-7 December 2002), Bill reported that eight species of leeches are now known to occur in the Park.] Don Klemm and Bill Moser currently are preparing a guide to the Hirudinea of the southeastern United States that will include a discussion of the leeches occurring in the Park. Additional information is available on a website established and maintained by Klemm, Moser, and Wetzel, entitled, Classification and Checklist of the Leeches (Phylum Annelida: Class Clitellata: Subclass Hirudinida) occurring in North America north of Mexico.

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FAMILY GLOSSIPHONIIDAE

Genus Actinobdella Moore, 1901
Actinobdella pediculata (Hemingway, 1908) - TN

Genus Alboglossiphonia Luken, 1976
Alboglossiphonia heteroclita (Linnaeus, 1761) - NC

Genus Desserobdella Barta & Sawyer, 1990
Desserobdella phalera (Graf, 1899) 1901 - NC

Desserobdella picta (Verrill, 1872) 1901 - NC
Genus Gloiobdella Ringuelet, 1978
Gloiobdella elongata (Castle, 1900) - NC, TN

Genus Helobdella R. Blanchard, 1896
Helobdella stagnalis (Linnaeus, 1758) - NC, TN
Helobdella papillata Moore, 1952 - NC, TN - !! - This taxon commonly misidentified as H. triserialis. In previous keys (Klemm 1982, 1985, Sawyer 1986b), specimens would fall under the description of Helobdella triserialis (E. Blanchard, 1849). Based upon the original species descriptions and the results of a phylogenetic analysis, Siddall and Borda (2003) differentiated Helobdella papillata (three irregular rows of papillae irrespective of size and pigmentation) from Helobdella triserialis (cephalic transverse banding). Helobdella papillata -- as it is now defined -- is common and widely distributed throughout eastern North America. Helobdella triserialis occurs in South America {Modified from Moser et al. 2006.}

Genus Oligobdella Moore, 1900
Oligobdella biannulata (Moore, 1918) - NC, TN, GSMNP - !! - This rarely encountered species may be host specific for desmognathine salamanders from the montane regions of the Carolinas (Sawyer & Shelley, 1976). The life history, known salamander hosts (D. marmoratus, D. monticola, D. ochrophaeus, D. orestes, D. quadramaculatus) and distribution of this species in the southeastern United States (currently restricted to the Southern Blue Ridge Physiographic Zone) was recently presented by Moser et al. (2005).

Genus Placobdella R. Blanchard, 1893
Placobdella montifera Moore, 1906 - NC, TN
Placobdella multilineata Moore, 1953 - NC, TN
Placobdella nuchalis Sawyer and Shelley 1976 - NC, TN
Placobdella ornata (Verrill, 1872) - TN
Placobdella papillifera (Verrill, 1872) - NC
Placobdella parasitica (Say, 1824) ) - NC, TN
Placobdella translucens (Sawyer & Shelley, 1976) - NC

FAMILY PISCICOLIDAE

Genus Myzobdella Leidy, 1851
Myzobdella lugubris Leidy, 1851 - NC, TN

Genus Piscicola de Blainville, 1818
Piscicola punctata (Verrill, 1871) - TN

Genus Piscicolaria Whitman, 1889
Piscicolaria reducta Meyer, 1940 - TN

Order Arhynchobdellida

FAMILY HAEMOPIDAE

Genus Haemopis Savigny, 1822
Haemopis marmorata (Say, 1824) - NC, TN
Haemopis terrestris (Forbes, 1890) - TN
Haemopis septagon Sawyer & Shelley, 1976 - NC

FAMILY HIRUDINIDAE

Genus Macrobdella Verrill, 1872
Macrobdella decora (Say, 1824) - NC, TN
Macrobdella ditetra Moore, 1953 - NC

Genus Philobdella Verrill, 1874
Philobdella gracilis Moore, 1901 - NC

FAMILY ERPOBDELLIDAE

Genus Erpobdella de Blainville, 1818
Erpobdella punctata (Leidy, 1870) - NC, TN

Genus Mooreobdella Pawlowski, 1955
Mooreobdella melanostoma Sawyer & Shelley, 1976 - NC
Mooreobdella tetragon Sawyer & Shelley, 1976 - NC


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