Illinois Natural History Survey - University of Illinois

| Steve Taylor | CV | People | Cave Biology | Pseudoscorpiones | Gerromorpha | Nepomorpha | Aradidae | Coreidae | Reduviidae | Strepsiptera |

Steven J. Taylor
July 2012

Macroinvertebrate Biologist
Illinois Natural History Survey
University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
1816 South Oak Street (MC-652)
Champaign, Illinois 61820
Office: 217-244-1122 Cell: 217-714-2871
www.inhs.uiuc.edu/~sjtaylor/home.html
Email: sjtaylor@illinois.edu





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EDUCATION:

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HONORS AND AWARDS:

  • Fellow of the National Speleological Society. July 2005.
  • The Kudo Award for Outstanding Thesis or Dissertation, Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, 1996.
  • The Richard E. Blackwelder Award, Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Spring 1992.
  • Dissertation Research Award, The Graduate School, Southern Illinois University. Spring 1991, Fall 1991.
  • Sigma Xi, Full Member of the Southern Illinois University Chapter of the Society of Sigma Xi, 1988. (current chapter: University of Illinois)
  • Phi Kappa Phi, Member of the Southern Illinois University Chapter of Phi Kappa Phi.
  • Biology Achievement Award, Department of Biology, Texas A&M University.
  • Departmental Distinction, Department of Biology, Hendrix College.
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PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE:

  • ASSISTANT RESEARCH PROGRAM LEADER in Macroinvertebrate Biology, Illinois Natural History Survey, Institute of Natural Resource Sustainability, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. 50% time October 2010-present
  • AQUATIC BIOLOGIST/AQUATIC ZOOLOGY COORDINATOR for the Statewide Biological Survey and Assessment Program, Illinois Natural History Survey. Assistant Research Scientist: January 2000-August 2001; Associate Research Scientist: September 2001-October 2007; Research Scientist: November 2007-June 2008; Macroinvertebrate Biologist: July 2008-October 2010. 50% time October 2010-present
  • AQUATIC ENTOMOLOGIST, Illinois Natural History Survey. Assistant Research Scientist: July 1997 - December 1999
  • FIELD ASSISTANT, Illinois Natural History Survey. Performing a status survey of an Illinois endemic cave amphipod, Gammarus acherondytes. May-June 1995.
  • SCIENTIST, Engineering Science, Inc. Examining caves north of Nashville, Tennessee, looking for federally endangered bats along proposed interstate highway alignments. April-May 1994
  • RESEARCH ASSISTANT, Department of Cinema and Photography, Southern Illinois University. Assisted Charles Swedlund in grant funded photographic research on historical names in Mammoth Cave, Kentucky. Summer 1994
  • ENTOMOLOGIST, Illinois Natural History Survey. Field team leader on a two year (1992-1993) grant surveying the biota and water quality of Illinois caves and other subterranean habitats
  • FIELD TECHNICIAN, Performing an inventory of bats at Horseshoe Lake Conservation Area, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. June 1993 - August 1993
  • FIELD ASSISTANT, Illinois Natural History Survey. Performing a status survey of an Illinois endemic cave amphipod, Gammarus acherondytes. May 1993 - September 1993
  • DATA ANALYST, Department of Biology, Texas A&M University. Carried out computer analysis of distributional patterns of decapod crustaceans of the west coast of the America's for Dr. Mary K. Wicksten. Spring 1985
  • SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL TECHNICIAN, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Arkansas. Field work on cotton pest insecticide resistance, curated insect collection. Summer 1986
  • SOFTWARE DEVELOPER, Department of Biology, Hendrix College. Designed and wrote software to analyze field data on forest succession and composition for Plant Ecology class. Fall 1982
  • RESEARCH ASSISTANT, American Museum of Natural History's Southwestern Research Station, Portal, Arizona. Assisted Dr. Pete Blancher in collection of field and laboratory data on the food supply and breeding biology of Western and Cassin's Kingbirds. Summer 1979
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PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATIONS:

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PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES:

  • Professional Society Membership:
  • Professional Society Offices Held:
    • EDITORIAL BOARD, Speleobiology Notes (October 2008 - present)
    • EDITORIAL BOARD MEMBER, Il Naturalista Campano, Museo Naturalistico degli Alburni, Corleto Monforte, Campania, Italy (November 2007 - present)
    • TAXONOMIC EXPERT, HEMIPTERA for the Taxonomic Certification Program of the Society for Freshwater Science (formerly: North American Benthological Society [NABS]) (December 2004 - December 2009, November 2010 - present)
    • ASSOCIATE EDITOR FOR LIFE SCIENCES for the Journal of Cave and Karst Studies (February 2000-June 2004)
    • EDITOR, North American Biospeleology Newsletter, Biospeleology Section of the National Speleological Society (June 2002-2004)
    • EXECUTIVE SECRETARY, Biospeleology Section of the National Speleological Society (July 1999-July 2000)

  • Professional Service for Organizations:
  • Manuscript Reviews:
    • Annals of the Entomological Society of America, Aquatic Insects, Ecography, Ecology, Entomological News, Environmental Entomology, European Journal of Entomology, The Florida Entomologist, Geology, Great Lakes Entomologist, Herpetological Review, Insect Science, Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science, Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, Journal of Natural History, Journal of Insect Science, Marine and Freshwater Research, Munis Entomology & Zoology, Occasional Papers of the Museum-Texas Tech University, Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, The Southwestern Naturalist, Speleobiology Notes, Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society; book chapter reviews for National Speleological Society.

  • Other Reviews:
    • Internal manuscript reviews for the Illinois Natural History Survey and Illinois State Geological Survey; proposal reviews for the National Science Foundation; monitoring protocol reviews for the National Park Service.

  • Conservation and Management:
    • MEMBER, NATIONAL PARK SERVICE CAVE ECOLOGY INVENTORY AND MONITORING TEAM (November 2009-present)
    • INVERTEBRATE TECHNICAL EXPERT CONSULTANT to the ENDANGERED SPECIES PROTECTION BOARD (ESPB InvertTEC) for the 2014 list revision (January 2012-present)
    • ACTING CHAIR, INVERTEBRATE ENDANGERED SPECIES TECHNICAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE (advises the Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board) (2008 - 2010)
    • INVITED PANELIST, FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN KARST RESEARCH (Karst Waters Institute, 3-5 May, 2007)
    • CHAIR, TECHNICAL SUBCOMITTEE, KARST INVERTEBRATE RECOVERY TEAM for nine Bexar County (Texas) karst invertebrates (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [Austin, Texas, Ecological Services Field Office], January 2002-present)
    • REVIEWER, proposed rule for the listing of the Tumbling Creek Cavesnail as an Endangered Species (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, January 2002)
    • MEMBER, ILLINOIS CAVE AMPHIPOD RECOVERY TEAM (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, March 1999-present)
    • MEMBER, TUMBLING CREEK CAVESNAIL WORKING GROUP (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2002-present) (see completed recovery plan [3.4 Mb file])
    • MEMBER, KARST WORKING GROUP (Illinois Department of Natural Resources, 1997-2008)

  • Committee Service, University of Illinois / Illinois Natural History Survey:
    • Member, INHS Senior Management Team (October 2010-present)
    • Chair, INHS Budget Committee (December 2010-August 2012)
    • Member, INHS Budget Committee (August 2008-August 2012)
    • Chair, INHS-IDOT Committee on Data Management (December 2009-December 2010)
    • Chair, INHS-IDOT Committee on Report Development (December 2009-December 2010)

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DISSERTATION:

Habitat preferences, species assemblages, and resource partitioning by Gerromorpha (Insecta: Heteroptera) in southern Illinois, with a faunal list and keys to species of the state. Ph.D. Dissertation in Zoology, Zoology Department, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois. 1996. xviii + 345 pp.

ABSTRACT: A list of, and keys to, the 5 families, 14 genera, and 51 species of Gerromorpha possible in Illinois are presented. Included are illustrations, a synopsis of the biological literature for each species, and distribution maps. The Illinois fauna includes 43 species of Gerromorpha (19 Gerridae, 6 Hebridae, 2 Hydrometridae, 3 Mesoveliidae, and 13 Veliidae). Eight of these species are new records for the state. Information on seasonal occurence, habitats, and wing morphs are presented for many of the species.
 
Species assemblages at 86 sites in southern Illinois were studied in relation to types of habitats. Assemblages varied in size and composition, with the largest assemblage found in clear, rocky, permanent streams.
 
Field life history studies were conducted for Neogerris hesione, Mesovelia mulsanti, Microvelia pulchella, Microvelia hinei, and Merragata brunnea at a single pond in Jackson County, Illinois. Mesoveila cryptophila, Microvelia austrina, and Microvelia pulchella were reared in the laboratory.
 
A detailed study of the fauna of a single pond in Jackson County, Illinois, was conducted to examine resource partitioning among the most abundant gerromorphans at that site (Neogerris hesione, Mesovelia mulsanti, Microvelia pulchella, Microvelia hinei, and Merragata brunnea). Species were found to differ in seasonal peaks of abundance. Other factors, such as duckweed cover, distance from shore, and temperature also were found to be important for some species. Within species, differences between generations in most habitat and weather variables, and between instars in most habitat variables, were found for Neogerris hesione, Merragata brunnea, Mesovelia mulsanti, and Microvelia pulchella, but few differences were found for Microvelia hinei.
 
Laboratory experiments with two species (Neogerris hesione and Mesovelia mulsanti) examined the effects of population density, food, and presence of competitors on habitat choice. These tests demonstrated that Mesovelia mulsanti is associated more closely with duckweed than is Neogerris hesione.
(Email to request pdf copy)
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THESIS:

Ecology, biology and coexistence of four species of Aradidae from the southeastern United States. M.S. Thesis in Zoology, Department of Biology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas. 1987. ix + 102 pp.

ABSTRACT: Four species of common southeastern Aradidae (Neuroctenus simplex, Mezira sayi, Mezira granulata, and Aradus acutus) occur together in similar habitats, occasionally even on the same tree. Field studies determined that there are some differences in the moisture levels preferred by the different species, and in laboratory experiments the larger species, A. acutus, selects larger crevices than the other three species. Differences between heights of collection sites on host trees and differences between circumference of host trees provided further evidence of habitat partitioning by the four species. The two Mezira species were found to be associated with fungi of the genus Stereum. Some differences in preferences for light/dark, narrow/wide, or moist/dry conditions were detected. Orientation towards a dark object was recorded for several of the species. An undescribed scelionid wasp was reared from the eggs of N. simplex. The first observation of predation upon aradids in North America is reported. Information on the life histories of the four species, including data on seasonal occurrence, eggs, mating, and host tree species is presented.
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PEER REVIEWED PUBLICATIONS:

Hayward, A., D.P. McMahon, D. Windsor, J.F. Barrera, J. Gómez, L. A. Calcaterra, R. Wharton, S.J. Taylor, J.L. Cook and J. Kathirithamby. Biogeography of Caenocholax fenyesi (Insecta: Strepsiptera): a parasitoid of the red imported fire ant in the southern USA. Biology Letters (submitted 28 May 2012).

Bond, J.E. and S.J. Taylor. A new species of Tarsonops (Araneae, Caponiidae) from southern Belize, with a key to the genera of the subfamily Nopinae. Zookeys (submitted 1 April 2012).

Soto-Adames, F.N. and S.J. Taylor. New records and new species of springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola) from caves in the Salem Plateau of Illinois, USA. Journal of Cave & Karst Studies (submitted 15 March 2012).

Taylor, S.J., J.K. Krejca, M.J. Dreslik, M.L. Denight and C.A. Phillips. Body size, growth rate, and population structure of the salamander Plethodon albagula (Caudata: Plethodontidae) in cave and epigean ecosystems of central Texas. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies (submitted 12 February 2011).

Slay, M.E., P.E. Skelly, and S.J. Taylor. New records of Onthophagus cavernicollis Howden and Cartwright (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Ozark caves with a review of scarabaeoids reported from US and Canadian caves. Coleopterist’s Buelletin (accepted 16 July 2012).

Taylor, S.J., A. Addison, & T. Toulkeridis. 2012. Biological potential of under-studied cave fauna of the Galapagos Islands. Revista Geoespacial 8: 13-22.

Slay, M.E., and S.J. Taylor. 2012. Brackenridgia ashleyi (Isopoda: Trichoniscidae): range extension with notes on ecology. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 73(3): 197–200. doi: 10.4311/2011LSC0221

Heads, S.W. and S.J. Taylor. 2012. A new species of Ripipteryx from Belize (Orthoptera, Ripipterygidae) with a key to the species of the Scrofulosa Group. Zookeys 169: 1-8. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.169.2531

ABSTRACT: A new species of the genus (Ripipteryx (Orthoptera: Tridactyloidea: Ripipterygidae) from the Toledo District of southern Belize is described and illustrated. Ripipteryx mopana sp. n. is placed in the Scrofulosa Group based on its elaborately ornamented frons and is readily distinguished from its congeners by the fusion of the superior and inferior frontal folds to form a nasiform median process, the epiproct with both anterior and posterior margins emarginate, the subgenital plate with distinct lateroapical depressions either side of the median line, the basal plate of the phallus strongly bilobed apically, and the development of well-demarcated denticular lobes in the dorsal endophallic valves. A preliminary key to the species of the Scrofulosa Group is provided.
Available as an open access article at the journal website.

Disney, R.H.L., S.J. Taylor, M.E. Slay & J.K. Krejca. 2011. New species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) recorded from caves in Nevada, USA. Subterranean Biology 9: 73-84. doi: 10.3897/subtbiol.9.2511

ABSTRACT: Five new species of scuttle fly are reported from caves in Nevada, USA, namely Aenigmatias bakerae Disney, Megaselia excuniculus Disney, M. krejcae Disney, M. folliculorum Disney, M. necpleuralis Disney and a female Megaselia that can not be named until linked to its male.
Available as an open access article at the journal website.

Vilkamaa, P., H. Hippa and S.J. Taylor. 2011. The genus Camptochaeta in Nearctic caves, with the description of C. prolixa sp. n. (Diptera, Sciaridae). ZooKeys 135: 69-75.

ABSTRACT: Camptochaeta prolixa sp. n. (Diptera, Sciaridae) is described from caves in Nevada, and three other congeneric species are recorded from caves in Nevada and Arkansas, United States. The new species shows some indication to a subterranean mode of life, including long antenna and legs, and in some specimens, reduction of the eye bridge.
Available as an open access article at the journal website.

Zahniser, J.N., S.J. Taylor, and J.K. Krejca. 2011. First reports of the invasive grass-feeding leafhopper Balclutha rubrostriata (Melichar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in the United States. Entomological News 121(1):132-138.

View document as PDF file (9.43 MB).

Yannarell, A.C., R.R. Busby, M.L. Denight, D.L. Gebhart and S.J. Taylor. 2011. Soil bacteria and fungi respond on different spatial scales to invasion by the legume Lespedeza cuneata. Frontiers in Terrestrial Microbiology 2:127. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2011.00127.

ABSTRACT: The spatial scale on which microbial communities respond to plant invasions may provide important clues as to the nature of potential invader-microbe interactions. Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don is an invasive legume that may benefit from associations with mycorrhizal fungi; however, it has also been suggested that the plant is allelopathetic and may alter the soil chemistry of invaded sites through secondary metabolites in its root exudates or litter. Thus, L. cuneata invasion may interact with soil microorganisms on a variety of scales. We investigated L. cuneata-related changes to soil bacterial and fungal communities at two spatial scales using multiple sites from across its invaded N. American range. Using whole community DNA fingerprinting, we characterized microbial community variation at the scale of entire invaded sites and at the scale of individual plants. Based on permutational multivariate analysis of variance, soil bacterial communities in heavily invaded sites were significantly different from those of uninvaded sites, but bacteria did not show any evidence of responding at very local scales around individual plants. In contrast, soil fungi did not change significantly at the scale of entire sites, but there were significant differences between fungal communities of native versus exotic plants within particular sites. The differential scaling of bacterial and fungal responses indicates that L. cuneata interacts differently with soil bacteria and soil fungi, and these microorganisms may play very different roles in the invasion process of this plant.
Available as an open access article at the journal website.

McPherson, J.E., R.J. Packauskas, R.W. Sites, S.J. Taylor, C.S. Bundy, J.D. Bradshaw, and P.L. Mitchell. 2011. Review of Acanthocephala (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae) of America north of Mexico with a key to species. Zootaxa 2835: 30-40.

ABSTRACT: A review of Acanthocephala of America north of Mexico is presented with an updated key to species. A. confraterna is considered a junior synonym of A. terminalis, thus reducing the number of known species in this region from five to four. New state and country records are presented.
Available as an open access article at the journal website.

Taylor, S.J. and J.R. Holsinger. 2011. A new species of the subterranean amphipod crustacean genus Stygobromus (Crangonyctidae) from a cave in Nevada, USA. Subterranean Biology 8: 39-47. doi: 10.3897/subtbiol.8.1130

ABSTRACT: Stygobromus albapinus, a new stygobiotic amphipod crustacean species in the family Crangonyctidae, is described from two pools in Model Cave in Great Basin National Park, White Pine County, Nevada, USA. The type specimens were collected on two different visits to the cave. The new species is assigned to the hubbsi group, bringing the number of described species in this group to 45, but many other provisionally recognized species assigned to this group remain undescribed. With exception of a single species from deep wells in southeastern Wisconsin, all other members of the hubbsi group are recorded from a wide variety of subterranean groundwater habitats (e.g., caves, springs, wells, etc.) in western North America, west of the Great Plains. Although the taxonomic affi nities of Stygobromus albapinus, n. sp. need further study, the species does appear to share several important morphological characters with a species from a cave in western Utah located approximately 300 km east-northeast of Model Cave.
View document as PDF file (2.6 MB).

Kathirithamby, J., S.J. Taylor, and R. Lareau. 2010. Correction to new state record and northeastern range extension for Caenocholax fenyesi sensu lato (Strepsiptera: Myrmecolacidae). Florida Entomologist 93(3): 473.

Disney, R. H. L., S. J. Taylor and M. E. Slay. 2010. Review of the scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) recorded from caves in the USA, with new records from Arkansas and Missouri. Subterranean Biology 7: 75-96.

ABSTRACT: Six species of scuttle fly are reported from caves in Arkansas and Missouri. Five of these are cavernicoles, including the new species Conicera slayi Disney and Megaselia taylori Disney. The latter belongs to the same complex as M. cavernicola and a species now recognised as M. breviterga (Lundbeck), with which M. spelunciphila Disney is synonymised following recognition that its type series was mixed by inclusion of M. taylori. A key to the cave dwelling members of the M. pulicaria species complex of North America is provided.
(Email to request reprint)

Zacharda, M., D. Fong, H. H. Hobbs III, E. Piva, M. E. Slay, and S. J. Taylor. 2010. A review of the genus Traegaardhia (Acari, Prostigmata, Rhagidiidae) with descriptions of new species and a key to species. Zootaxa 2474: 1-64.

ABSTRACT: A new supplemented concept of the genus Traegaardhia Zacharda, 1980 (Acari: Rhagidiidae) is presented and descriptions of seven new species of the genus are given. These are Traegaardhia cavernarum n. sp., T. cavernicola n. sp., T. distosolenidia n. sp., T. gracilis n. sp., T. nasuta n. sp., T. subterranea n. sp., from caves located in northeastern Prealps, Italy, and T. similis n. sp. from the Ozark Plateaus, southeastern USA. The neotype of Foveacheles holsingeri Zacharda, 1980 is assigned, the species is redescribed and together with Foveacheles paralleloseta Zacharda, 1985, transferred into the genus Traegaardhia. Foveacheles thaleri n. sp. is described as the possible epigean ancestor of the derivative troglobiotic T. subterranea and the adaptive shift hypothesis and parapatric speciation of T. subterranea is outlined. A key to adults of the known eleven species of the genus Traegaardhia is presented. The biogeography, morphological adaptations to life in caves (troglomorphisms), vicariance and distribution of the presented taxa are briefly discussed. All new taxa are authored by M. Zacharda only.
(Email to request reprint)

Tinerella, P. P., S. J. Taylor, and J. E. McPherson. 2009. New records and a checklist of aquatic True Bugs (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha) from Illinois. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 82(4): 293-299.

ABSTRACT: Ten species of aquatic true bugs are newly reported for Illinois. Nepomorphan faunistic studies in Illinois are reviewed briefly and a checklist of the 54 species of aquatic true bugs occurring in the state is presented.
(Email to request reprint)

Zeppelini, D., S. J. Taylor and M. E. Slay. 2009. Cave Pygmarrhopalites Vargovitsh, 2009 (Collembola, Symphypleona, Arrhopalitidae) in United States. Zootaxa 2204: 1-18.

ABSTRACT: Six new species of Collembola of the family Arrhopalitidae are described from the United States (Pygmarrhopalites leonardwoodensis sp. nov., P. plethorasari sp. nov., P. youngsteadtii sp. nov., P. buffaloensis sp. nov., P. shoshoneiensis sp. nov., and P. ashcraftensis sp. nov.) from caves in Missouri (2 spp.), Arkansas (2 spp.), Nevada, and Indiana, respectively. These new taxa, which display varying degrees of troglomorphy, are compared with previously known species and bring the total described species in North America to 41.
(Email to request reprint)
Available as an open access article at the journal website.

Taylor, S. J., A. C. Phillips, S. L. Post, and S. E. Brown. 2009. An overview of Illinois' geological history and landscape. Pages 7-23 in Canaries in the Catbird Seat, C. A. Taylor, J. B. Taft, and C. E. Warwick (eds.). Illinois Natural History Survey Special Publication No. 30, Champaign, IL. 306 pp.

OBJECTIVES: Starting with the pre-glacial environment, this chapter introduces the environment and major habitats of Illinois. Since the flora and fauna of any region are ultimately a function of geology, we describe how Illinois' geological history has shaped the landscape in which Illinois' plant and animal communities are found. The history of the formation and deformation of bedrock, changing river systems over geological time, and, especially, multiple glacial episodes are discussed. Present day ecoregions of Illinois (Driftless Area, Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains, Central Corn Belt Plains, Interior River Valleys and Hills, Interior Plateau, and Mississippi Alluvial Plain) are also presented using the classification system recently developed by the U.S. EPA, and this is compared with another classification system, Illinois' Natural Divisions. Finally, after briefly describing Illinois' climate, we provide an overview of Illinois' ecological communities.
(Email to request reprint)

Kathirithamby, J., S. J. Taylor, and J. T. Longino. 2009. New host record for Caenocholax fenyesi sensu lato (Strepsiptera: Myrmecolacidae) from Costa Rica. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 85(1): 8-10.

(Email to request reprint)

Shear, W. A., S. J. Taylor, J. J. Wynne & J. K. Krejca. 2009. Cave millipeds of the United States. VIII. New genera and species of polydesmidan millipeds from caves in the southwestern United States (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Macrosternodesmidae). Zootaxa 2151: 47-65.

ABSTRACT: Four new species of presumed troglobitic polydesmidan millipeds in two new genera are described from caves in the states of Arizona, Nevada and California. Pratherodesmus, n. gen., is comprised of the type species, P. voylesi, n. sp., P. ecclesia, n. sp., and P. despaini, n. sp. The genus is found in Arizona and California. Nevadesmus ophimontis, n. gen., n. sp., is from White Pine Co., Nevada; the new genus also includes N. hubbsi (Chamberlin) 1943, new combination. All four species were collected in or near United States National Parks, Bureau of Land Management lands, and in a private preserve. All new taxa are authored by W. A. Shear only.
Available as an open access article at the journal website.

Taylor, S. J. 2009. Concurrent phenologies of three semiaquatic bugs (Heteroptera: Gerridae, Veliidae) on a small river in central Illinois, USA. Psyche vol. 2009, Article ID 562471, 5 pages, 2009. doi:10.1155/2009/562471.

ABSTRACT: The phenology of three species of Gerroidea (Heteroptera), Metrobates hesperius Uhler (Gerridae), Rhagovelia oriander Parshley (Veliidae), and Rhematobates tenuipes Meinert (Gerridae), was studied on a river in central Illinois (USA). Metrobates hesperius was the most abundant species, and was active from mid-May through mid-October. It was bivoltine and overwintered as eggs. Matinig and oviposition of M. hesperius were observed in mid-July. Rhagovelia oriander was present from mid-May to mid-November. This species was bivoltine (or possibly trivoltine), overwintering as eggs. Rheumatobates tenuipes was not active until early August, and was present to mid-November and was univoltine. It overwinters as adults and possibly as nymphs, and may undergo an extended early season diapause. The three species occupied differing microhabitats and differed in periods of peak abundance, with M. hesperius being most abundant from mid-May through the first of August, and R. tenuipes being most abundant from early August to mid-November.
(Email to request reprint, or go to journal website)

Taylor, S. J. and S. A. Gil. 2009. State records and confirmations of Aradidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) from Louisiana, U.S.A. The Florida Entomologist 92(2):199-207.

ABSTRACT: The Aradidae of Louisiana are poorly known, with only 5 species reported from the state. We examined 251 adult flat bugs from Louisiana in the Louisiana State Arthropod Museum, confirming the presence of 4 species (Aradus falleni Stål, Acaricoris ignotus Harris and Drake, Notapictinus aurivilli (Bergroth), and Mezira sayi Kormilev) and adding 14 more in 4 subfamilies (Aneurinae: Aneurus fiskei Heidemann, Aneurus pygmaeus Kormilev; Aradinae: Aradus acutus Say, Aradus aequalis Say, Aradus kormilevi Heiss, Aradus ornatus Say, Aradus robustus Uhler; Carventinae: Neoproxius gypsatus (Bergroth); Mezirinae: Neuroctenus pseudonymus Bergroth, Neuroctenus simplex (Uhler), Mezira emarginata (Say), Mezira froeschneri Davidová-Vilímová et al., Mezira granulata (Say), and Mezira lobata (Say)) to the state's fauna. Habitats recorded for these species are discussed.
(Email to request reprint)

Barnes, J. K., M. E. Slay, and S. J. Taylor. 2009. Adult Diptera from Ozark caves. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 111(2): 335-353.

ABSTRACT: The Diptera fauna of Ozark caves is fairly typical of that found elsewhere in the United States east of the Great Plains. The sphaerocerid Spelobia tenebrarum is the only troglobitic dipteran found in Ozark caves. Probable troglophiles include the mycetophilid Macrocera nobilis, the psychodids Psychoda spp., and the phorid Megaselia cavernicola. The tipulids commonly found in Ozark caves, such as Dactylolabis montana, Dolichopeza spp. and Limonia spp. are probably all trogloxenes, as are the Trichoceridae and Heleomyzidae. The mycetophilids, Exechiopsis umbratica and Rymosia sp., and the culicids are among the most common cave dipterans in the study area. The culicids overwinter in caves and other protected places; they are properly classified as trogloxenes. The main sources of food for cave Diptera are other insects, carrion, guano, and allochthanous plant debris.
(Email to request reprint)

Taylor, S. J., J. K. Krejca, M. E. Slay, and T. L. Harrison. 2009. Milbert's Tortoiseshell, Aglais milberti (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): A facultative trogloxene in alpine caves. Speleobiology Notes 1:20-23.

(Email to request reprint, or go to journal website [you may need to create a free login])

Cokendolpher, J. C., J. R. Reddell, S. J. Taylor, J. K. Krejca, A. V. Suarez, and , C. E. Pekins. 2009. Further ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from caves of Texas. Texas Memorial Museum Speleological Monographs, 7. Studies on the cave and endogean fauna of North America, V. Pp. 151-168.

ABSTRACT: An annotated list of the 41 species of ants recorded from caves in Texas is provided. Previously published records are given just by cave name and county; whereas new collections are recorded by cave name, date, and collectors. More detailed information about Labidus coecus and Solenopsis invicta is provided because these are the two main ant species found in caves of central and southern Texas (the area of largest limestone karst in the state).
     At least 36 species of ants were recorded from Texas caves by Reddell and Cokendolpher (2001). Here, we further list an additional five species; one being an uncommon endogean species (Discothryrea testacea Roger), which is the first record from the state of Texas and the furthest west for the species. A Leptogenys sp. is recorded for the first time from the U.S.A. Illustrations of this ant are provided; it has not been identified to species and may be undescribed. Photographs and records are provided showing ants preying on a variety of foods within caves, and a troglobitic spider eating an ant.
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Nardi, J., C. M. Bee, L. A. Miller, and S. J. Taylor. 2009. Distinctive features of the alimentary canal of a fungus-feeding Hemipteran, Mezira granulata (Heteroptera: Aradidae). Arthropod Structure & Development 38:206-215.

ABSTRACT: Hemiptera (Insecta) have specialized mouthparts for fluid feeding as well as distinctive midgut epithelia. The gut epithelia of Mezira granulata, a member of an unusual family of Hemiptera  the Aradidae  are described in this manuscript. Species of this family are thought to feed on fungi instead of plant or animal materials, as is more typical of the Hemiptera. The midgut lumen is lined by perimicrovillar membranes rather than by the peritrophic membranes formed by specialized midgut cells of stomodeal valves found at foregutmidgut interfaces in many insects. However, a stomodeal valve also occurs at the foregut midgut boundary in these aradid bugs, and certain midgut epithelial cells located at the interface are specialized for secretion of an electron-dense extracellular matrix that fills the midgut lumen in the vicinity of the stomodeal valve. In addition to the distinctive cellular architecture of the apical (luminal) surfaces of midgut epithelial cells, luminal surfaces of the aradid hindgut epithelia are regionally differentiated into three regions with very different cuticles.
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Kathirithamby, J., S. J. Taylor, and R. Lareau. 2007. New state record and northeastern range extension for Caenocholax fenyesi sensu lato (Strepsiptera: Myrmecolacidae). Florida Entomologist 90(4): 762.

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Kathirithamby, J., S. J. Taylor, E. Valenzuela, J. G�mez, and J. F. Berrera. 2007. A light-trapped ant, Dolichoderus bispinosus (Formicidae) with evidence of stylopization by male Caenocholax fenyesi waloffi (Strepsiptera: Myrmecolacidae). Entomological News 118(3):279-282.

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Taylor, S. J. and J. E. McPherson. 2007. Gerromorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in southern Illinois: species assemblages and habitats. The Great Lakes Entomologist 39(1-2):1-26.

ABSTRACT: Gerromorphan species assemblages in southern Illinois were studied at 86 sites representing eleven habitat types (pond, lake, swamp, temporary pool, large river, small river, muddy eutrophic permanent stream, clear rocky permanent stream, clear rocky temporary stream, roadside ditch, and spring) from mid-May 1988 through late July 1991. Assemblages varied in size and composition, with the most diverse found in clear rocky permanent streams. Phenograms tended to cluster major habitat types (e.g., ponds, lakes) based on taxon presence/absence and to cluster the more commonly co-occuring species based on their presence/absence at collection sites. These phenograms indicated the presence of natural guilds of species in different habitat types. Some taxa were generalists based upon their widespread occurrence in a variety of both lentic and lotic habitat types, whereas others exhibited a narrower range of habitat use. Collections included 32 species in five families (Gerridae, Hebridae, Hydrometridae, Mesoveliidae, and Veliidae), which represented 91.4-95.2% of the estimated actual species present based on the species accumulation curve and four species richness estimators. These data demonstrate the presence of distinctive guilds of gerromorphans in different habitats in southern Illinois.
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Smith, J. E., C. J. Whelan, S. J. Taylor, M. L. Denight, and M. M. Stake. 2007. Novel predator-prey interactions: is resistance futile? Evolutionary Ecology Research 9:433-446.

ABSTRACT:
Premise: Prey species may possess inappropriate behavioural, morphological, and/or physiological responses to introduced, novel predators. Thus, introduced predators may exert strong selection on prey species.
Organisms: Black-capped vireo, Vireo atricapilla, and the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.
Data: Behavioural response of and time-energy budget for parental vireo defence against nest predation by fire ants.
Field site: Fort Hood, Texas, an 88,500-hectare US military installation.
Results: Fire ants usually attacked vireo nests near midnight as parents slept. All attacked nests – whether with eggs or nestlings – failed. However, adults defended their nests vigorously. Nest defence was prolonged, with a mean duration of 7.7 +/- 1.5 hours (25 times longer than that against native snake predators). Compared with brooding or incubation, nest defence is energetically expensive, depleting an estimated 59% of fat stores.
Conclusions: Fire ants are effective nest predators on this low-nesting bird species. The behavioural response of vireos to this novel predator is wholly inappropriate, with no benefits and considerable costs. Besides the energetic costs, defence results in numerous bites and venomous stings. Vireos ought to abandon their nests when first attacked by fire ants.
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McPherson, J. E. and S. J. Taylor. 2006. Notes on the field life history of Steinovelia stagnalis (Hemiptera: Veliidae) with a survey of the biological literature. Entomological News 117(4):399-405.

ABSTRACT: The field life history of Steinovelia stagnalis (Burmeister) was studied in southern Illinois from 1983 through 1986. This species overwintered as adults, which became active in late March and were last collected in late October. Early instars (1sts-3rds) were found from early May to early September, and late instars (4ths-5ths) from late May to mid-September, but the occurrence of each instar was not continuous. The sequences of peaks of the five instars suggest that this species is bivoltine in southern Illinois. A survey of the biological literature is included.
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Cai, W. and S. J. Taylor. 2006. Lentireduvius, a new genus of Peiratinae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from Brazil. Zootaxa 1360:51-60.

ABSTRACT: Lentireduvius Cai & Taylor, new genus, and one new species, L. brasiliensis Cai & Taylor, are described in the subfamily Peiratinae based on a single male specimen from Brazil. The dorsal habitus, antennal segments, male genitalia, and other diagnostic morphological features are illustrated with 25 figures. A key to the genera of Peiratinae of the Western Hemisphere is provided.
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Panno, S. V., K. C. Hackley, W. R. Kelly, H. H. Hwang, F. M. Wilhelm, S. J. Taylor, B. J. Stiff. 2006. Potential effects of recurrent low oxygen conditions on the Illinois Cave Amphipod. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 68(2):55-63.

ABSTRACT: The caves of Illinois' sinkhole plain are the sole habitat of the Illinois Cave amphipod (Gammarus acherondytes), a federally endangered species. The sinkhole plain is a hydrologically-connected sequence of karstified limestone that constitutes an extensive karst aquifer which serves as an important source of potable water for area residents. During this investigation, we examined the ground-water quality in caves within two ground-water basins: 1) Illinois Caverns, where the amphipod is now present after previously reported to have been extirpated from the lower reaches, and 2) Stemler Cave, where the amphipod is reported to have been extirpated. The chemical composition of cave streams in Illinois Caverns and Stemler Cave were compared to determine which parameters, if any, could have contributed to the loss of G. acherondytes from Stemler Cave. Stream water in Stemler Cave contained higher concentrations of organic carbon, potassium, silica, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, iron and manganese than Illinois Caverns. Perhaps most importantly, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in Stemler Cave were, during periods of low flow, substantially lower than in Illinois Caverns. Based on land use, there are probably at least eight times more private septic systems in the Stemler Cave ground-water basin than in the Illinois Caverns ground-water basin. Low DO concentrations were likely the result of microbial breakdown of soil organic matter and wastewater treatment system effluent, and the oxidation of pyrite in bedrock. The near-hypoxic DO in Stemler Cave that occurred during low-flow conditions, and, we speculate, a limited range of G. acherondytes within the Stemler Cave ground-water basin due to a metabolic advantage of the stygophilic aquatic invertebrates over the stygobitic G. acherodytes, resulted in the apparent loss of G. acherondytes from Stemler Cave.
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Wilhelm, F. M., S. J. Taylor and G. L. Adams. 2006. Comparison of routine metabolic rates of the troglobite, Gammarus acherondytes (Amphipoda: Gammaridae), and the troglophile, Gammarus troglophilus. Freshwater Biology 51:1162-1174.

SUMMARY:
1. Reduced metabolic rate among cave organisms compared with surface species has long been suggested as an adaptation to food shortage in cave environments. However, comparisons of metabolic rates between species have not often included closely related surface and cave species. By measuring metabolic rate across three seasons and over a range of body sizes, we examined the hypothesis that the routine metabolic rate of Gammarus acherondytes, a federally listed stygobitic amphipod, is lower than that of the closely related stygophilic Gammarus troglophilus. To determine if human activities increased the supply of organic matter to caves, we also examined the relationship between residential development and bacterial contamination in water wells.
 
2. For G. acherondytes, the slope of the overall relationship between oxygen consumption and body dry mass did not differ from zero and did not vary seasonally, whereas for G. troglophilus it was positive and higher in summer than in winter and spring. These results provide insights into a potential novel metabolic adaptation among stygobites. Higher metabolic rate in young G. acherondytes would allow efficient use of typically transient energy sources and a low metabolic rate at larger body sizes would increase survival through periods of food scarcity.
 
3. The number of wells with faecal coliform contamination was weakly but positively correlated with the number of residential building permits, indicating that surface landuse changes probably increase the availability of energy in groundwater systems inhabited by G. acherondytes. This may give stygophilic animals, with higher metabolic rates, a competitive advantage in the caves, thus reducing the abundance of stygobites such as G. acherondytes.
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Ramsdell, K. M. M. and S. J. Taylor. 2006. A new state record for Olixon banksii Brues (Hymenoptera: Rhopalosomatidae) in Indiana. Entomological News 117(3):351-352.

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McPherson, J. E., S. J. Taylor, S. L. Keffer, and J. T. Polhemus. 2005. Life history and laboratory rearing of Macrovelia hornii (Hemiptera: Macroveliidae). Entomological News 116(4):217-224.

ABSTRACT: The field life history of Macrovelia hornii Uhler was studied periodically from 1990 through early 1994 in central Colorado near Waterton in Douglas County. The bug also was reared in the laboratory from egg to adult. Adults of this apparently univoltine species overwintered and became active in late January. Copulation was noted occasionally from early March to early June. Eggs were found periodically from mid-February to mid-August and always were glued to moss attached to damp or dry rocks. First through third instars were collected first in early May, fourth instars in early June. Higher percentages of later instars were found as the season progressed. The bug was reared in the laboratory on adults of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen under a 14L: 10D photoperiod at 18.3 � 1.5 C. The incubation period averaged 17.4 days. Durations of the four subsequent stadia averaged 8.3, 7.9, 8.5, and 13.1 days, respectively.
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Kathirithamby, J. and S. J. Taylor. 2005. A new species of Halictophagus (Insecta: Strepsiptera: Halictophagidae) from Texas, and a checklist of Strepsiptera from the United States and Canada. Zootaxa 1056:1-18.

ABSTRACT: A new species of Halictophagidae (Insecta: Strepsiptera), Halictophagus forthoodiensis Kathirithamby & Taylor, is described from Texas, USA. We also present a key to 5 families, and a check-list of 11 genera and 84 species of Strepsiptera known from USA and Canada.
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Taylor, S. J., J. K. Krejca, and M. L. Denight. 2005. Foraging range and habitat use of Ceuthophilus secretus (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae), a key trogloxene in central Texas cave communities. American Midland Naturalist 154:97-114.

ABSTRACT: Cave invertebrate communities are dependent upon exogenous energy sources because their environment generally lacks primary producers. In small caves of central Texas, endemic terrestrial cave invertebrates often rely in part on the energy brought into caves by cave crickets (Ceuthophilus spp.), which forage above ground at night and roost in caves during the daytime. Knowledge of cave cricket foraging range is needed to effectively protect invertebrate communities that include federally endangered species. We marked approximately 2000 C. secretus emerging from Big Red Cave (Coryell County, Texas) with UV bright paint and located 291 previously marked crickets over 17 nights. Crickets foraged up to 105 m from the cave entrance and were present in relatively uniform densities out to 80 m. While 51.1% of the crickets were found within 40 m, 8.1% were found at 80 m or beyond. Relocated crickets were predominantly found in grasses (30.7%), leaf litter (22.4%) and herbaceous vegetation (20.4%) and were found close to ground level (mean=0.49 cm). Our results show that C. secretus can forage at much greater distances than previously reported. The new data from our study should assist in the development of effective preserve design and management strategies for caves with endangered species in central Texas.
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Smith, J. E., S. J. Taylor, C. J. Whelan, M. L. Denight, and M. M. Stake. 2004. Behavioral interactions between the Red Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta) and vertebrate nest predators of the Black-Capped Vireo (Vireo atricapillus). Wilson Bulletin 116(2):163-166.

ABSTRACT: We report on behavioral interactions between fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) and vertebrate predators at two Black-capped Vireo (Vireo atricapilla) nests at Fort Hood, Texas. In the presence of fire ants, an eastern woodrat (Neotoma floridana) failed to depredate a clutch of vireo eggs at one nest, while a rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeri) depredated nestlings at another nest, despite fire ants swarming the nest. Neither nest was successful. Direct and indirect effects of interactions among nest predators on avian nesting success need further assessment.
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Taylor, S. J. and J. E. McPherson. 2004. Voltinism and laboratory rearing of Microvelia hinei (Heteroptera: Gerromorpha: Veliidae). Great Lakes Entomologist 36(1-2):1-9.

ABSTRACT: Voltinism in Microvelia hinei was studied in southern Illinois during 1989 and 1990. This species apparently overwintered as adults, which became active in late April; adults were last collected in late September. First instars were found from mid-May to late June, second instars from early-May to late October, third instars from mid-May to mid-July, fourth instars from mid-May to mid-August, and fifth instars from mid-May to mid-August. The sequences of peaks of nymphal instars and adults indicate that this species is at least bivoltine in southern Illinois. This species was reared from egg to adult at 26.7 � 0.6 C and under a 14L:10D photoperiod. The incubation period averaged 6.41 days; and the five nymphal stadia, 4.28, 2.76, 2.52, 3.00, and 4.08 days, respectively. Total developmental time averaged 25.00 days.
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Wilhelm, F. M., M. P. Venarsky, S. J. Taylor and F. E. Anderson. 2003. Survival of Gammarus troglophilus (Gammaridae) after leg removal: Evaluation of a procedure to obtain tissue for genetic analysis of rare and endangered amphipods. Invertebrate Biology 122(4):375-379.

ABSTRACT: Amphipod survival after the removal of a leg (pereiopod) has not been studied. If they survive, limbs could be removed to obtain tissue for genetic analyses without sacrificing individuals, an important asset when working with species which are endangered or for which population sizes are very small. We used a laboratory experiment to test the hypothesis that survival of amphipods is unaffected by the removal of legs. Surviaval of Gammarus troglophilus was similar (P = 0.74) between control (unmanipulated) and experimental (one or two of pereiopods 5 through 7 removed) groups. After 42 days, 25 of 26 amphipods in the experimental group had regenerated limbs that were half the size of the original. We recommend limb removal as a suitable method to obtain tissue for genetic analysis of rare or endangered amphipods.
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Taylor, S. J., C. A. Phillips and M. L. Denight. 2003. Geographic distribution, Graptemys pseudogeographica kohnii. Herpetological Review 34(3):261.

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Taylor, S. J. and J. E. McPherson. 2000 [published April 2002]. Comparison of two population sampling methods used in field life history studies of Mesovelia mulsanti (Heteroptera: Gerromorpha: Mesoveliidae) in southern Illinois. The Great Lakes Entomologist 33(3-4):223-230.

ABSTRACT: A field life history study of Mesovelia mulsanti was conducted in southern Illinois, the results of which are compared with those from an earlier study also conducted in southern Illinois. The two studies differed in the collecting techniques used (quadrat sampler versus aquatic net). Results of the present study give a clearer picture of the life history of this insect because the quadrat sampler collected representative samples of nymphs and adults more effectively than the aquatic net and, thus, the quadrat samples more accurately represented the actual chronology of the annual generations.
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Wetzel, M. J. and S. J. Taylor. 2001. First records of freshwater oligochaetes (Annelida, Clitellata) from caves in Illinois and Missouri, USA. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 63(3):99-104.

ABSTRACT: Aquatic oligochaetes were collected from the fine sediments of eight cave streams in Illinois and Missouri from June 1998 through January 2000. Five families, ten genera, and 15 taxa are reported; of these, Rhyacodrilus subterraneus (Tubificidae) represents a new state record for Illinois, and ten species-Dero digitata, D. nivea, and Pristina leidyi (Naididae) and Limnodrilus cervix, L. hoffmeisteri, L. udekemianus, Rhyacodrilus falciformis, R. sodalis, R. subterraneus, and Varichaetadrilus angustipenis (Tubificidae)-represent new state records for Missouri. Of the species collected, Haplotaxis cf. gordioides (Haplotaxidae), P. leidyi, and L. hoffmeisteri, R. falciformis, R. subterraneus, and Tubifex tubifex (Tubificidae) had previously been reported from caves in North America. These are the first published records of freshwater oligochaetes in caves of Illinois and Missouri.
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See the cover of this issue of the Journal of Cave and Karst Studies (Photo by Steve Taylor).

Villa, M., G. Tescari, and S. J. Taylor. 2001. Nuovi dati sulla presenza in Italia di Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heteroptera Coreidae). [Translation: New data about the Italian presence of Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heteroptera Coreidae).] Bollettino della Società Entomologica Italiana, Genova 133(2):103-112.

RIASSUNTO: Vengono discusse le caratteristiche biologiche, ecologiche e corologiche di Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann 1910, specie neartica da poco giunta in Europa.
[Translation:ABSTRACT: Biological, ecological and corological characteristics of Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann 1910, a neartic species just arrived in Europe, are discussed; several specimens of this important North America pest of pines were observed in Northern Italy, in Lombardy and Veneto. The authors underline the economic importance of this taxon, that can be considered firmly present in Northern Italy.]
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Taylor, S. J., G. Tescari, and M. Villa. 2001. A Nearctic pest of Pinaceae accidentally introduced into Europe: Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heteroptera: Coreidae) in northern Italy. Entomological News 112(2):101-103.

ABSTRACT: The western conifer-seed bug, Leptoglossus occidentalis, an important pest of pines in North America, is reported from urban areas of northern Italy as the first Old World record for this coreid.
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Taylor, S. J. and D. L. Wood. 2000. Rearing Hydrometra martini (Heteroptera: Hydrometridae): food and substrate effects. Florida Entomologist 83(1):17-25.

ABSTRACT: Hydrometra martini Kirkaldy was reared using two food treatments (Sminthurides malmgreni [Tullberg] or Drosophila melanogaster Meigen) and two substrate treatments (filter paper or duckweed) to investigate the effects of differing food and substrate on stadium and survivorship. Food, substrate, and the interaction of food and substrate affected survivorship and stadium lengths, but effects varied among instars. To maximize laboratory survivorship, the data indicate that the more effective food was Sminthurides on a filter paper substrate and Drosophila an a duckweed substrate.
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Taylor, S. J. and J. E. McPherson. 1999. Morphological variation and polyvoltinism of Microvelia pulchella (Heteroptera: Veliidae) in southern Illinois, USA. Acta Societaris Zoologicae Bohemicae 63:237-249.

ABSTRACT: Voltinism in Microvelia pulchella Westwood, 1834 was studied in southern Illinois during 1989 and 1990. This species overwintered as eggs, which hatched during April. First instars were found from mid-April through mid-October, second instars from mid-April through mid-October, third instars from late April through late October, fourth instars from late April through mid-November, and adults from early May through early November. The sequences of peaks of nymphal instars and adults indicated that this species had 4-5 generations per year. M. pulchella was reared from egg to adult at 23.3 + 1.1 C under a 14L:10D photoperiod. The incubation period averaged 9.85 days; and the first through fourth stadia averaged 8.18, 6.14, 6.32, and 7.72 days, respectively. Total developmental time averaged 34.07 days.
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Taylor, S. J., J. K. Krejca, and B. Churchwell. 1998. Geographic distribution. Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis. Herpetological Review 29(2):116.

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Taylor, S. J., J. K. Krejca, and B. Churchwell. 1998. Geographic distribution. Nerodia sipedon pleuralis. Herpetological Review 29(2):115.

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Taylor, S. J., J. K. Krejca, and B. Churchwell. 1998. Geographic distribution. Rana clamitans. Herpetological Review 29(2):108.

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Taylor, S. J. and J. E. McPherson. 1998. Voltinism in Merragata brunnea (Heteroptera: Gerromorpha: Hebridae) in southern Illinois. Florida Entomologist 81(4):509-515.

ABSTRACT: Voltinism in Merragata brunnea Drake was studied in southern Illinois during 1989 and 1990. This species apparently overwintered as adults, which became active in early March. First instars were found from mid-May through mid-September, second instars from mid-May through mid-October, third instars from early June through mid-October, fourth instars from late May through early November, fifth instars from late May through late October, and adults from early March through mid-November. The sequences of peaks of nymphal instars and adults indicate that this species is bi- or trivoltine in southern Illinois.
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Taylor, S. J. and J. E. McPherson. 1998. Voltinism in Neogerris hesione (Heteroptera: Gerridae) in southern Illinois. Entomological News 109(4):233-239.

ABSTRACT: Voltinism in Neogerris hesione was studied in southern Illinois during 1989 and 1990. This species apparently overwintered as eggs, which hatched during late April and early May. First and second instars were found from late April through late September, third instars from early May through late September, fourth instars from mid-May through late September, fifth instars from mid-May through the third week of September, and adults from late May through early November. The sequences of peaks for instars and adults strongly indicates that this species is trivoltine in southern Illinois.
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Taylor, S. J. and J. E. McPherson. 1998. Laboratory rearing of Mesovelia cryptophila (Heteroptera: Mesoveliidae). Entomological News 109(2):95-98.

ABSTRACT: Mesovelia cryptophila was reared from egg to adult at 26.7+0.6 C under a 14L:10D photoperiod. The incubation period averaged 14.93 days; and the four nymphal stadia, 3.24, 2.51, 3.15, and 4.85 days, respectively.
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Webb, D. W., L. M. Page, S. J. Taylor, and J. K. Krejca. 1998. The current status of the Illinois Cave Amphipod, Gammarus archerondytes Hubricht and Mackin (Crustacea: Amphipoda) and the caves in which it is found. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 60(3):172-178.

ABSTRACT: Gammarus acherondytes is a rare amphipod endemic to Illinois subterranean streams. It previously was recorded from five cave streams in Monroe and St. Clair counties, Illinois. An examination of 164 caves from 1986 to 1995 produced only one new record, Madonnaville Cave, in Monroe County. These recent collections have documented a large population of G. acherondytes in Illinois Caverns, a moderate-sized population in Fogelpole Cave, and a small population in Kreuger-Dry Run Cave. Pautler Cave, a previously known locality, has been bulldozed shut by the landowner. No specimens of G. acherondytes have been collected in Stemler Cave since 1965, and no specimens were collected in Madonnaville Cave in 1995 although a single specimen was collected in 1986.
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Davidová-Vilímová, J., S. J. Taylor, and J. E. McPherson. 1996. A new species of Mezira (Heteroptera: Aradidae) from the southeastern United States. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98(4):630-639.

ABSTRACT: Mezira froeschneri n. sp. is described from Florida. A key to the small Mezira species of America north of Mexico, including M. froeschneri, is provided.
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Feldhamer, G. A., J. O. Whitaker, J. K. Krejca, and S. J. Taylor. 1995. Food of the Evening Bat (Nycticeius humeralis) and Red Bat (Lasiurus borealis) from Southern Illinois. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 88(3-4):139-143.

ABSTRACT: Coleopterans represented the primary food item by volume for 13 evening bats (68.1%) and 7 red bats (68.7%) collected from July to September 1993 on Horsehoe Lake Conservation Area, Alexander County, Illinois. The single most important food for evening bats (23.5% of total volume) was the spotted cucumber beetle, a significant agricultural pest. This species made up only 7.9% of the food volume of red bats. The overall feeding overlap between these two species of bats appeared to be low.
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Taylor. S. J. and J. K. Krejca. 1994. Geographic Distribution. Pseudacris triseriata. Herpetological Review 25(2):74.

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Taylor, S. J. and J. K. Krejca. 1994. Geographic Distribution. Rana catesbiana. Herpetological Review 25(2):74.

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Taylor, S. J. and J. K. Krejca. 1994. Geographic Distribution. Notophthalmus viridescens louisianensis. Herpetological Review 25(2):73.

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Keffer, S. L., S. J. Taylor, and J. E. McPherson. 1994. Laboratory rearing and descriptions of immature stages of Curicta scorpio (Heteroptera: Nepidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 87(1):17-26.

ABSTRACT: Curicta scorpio Stal was reared in the laboratory from egg to adult under a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h at 27.5-28.9 C, and the immature stages were described. The incubation period averaged 11.4 d. Durations of the five subsequent stadia averaged 8.54, 15.29, 13.65, 18.56, and 18.87 d, respectively. Ovipostional behavior is discussed. Ontogeny of some antennal and profemoral structures is considered.
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McPherson, J. E. and S. J. Taylor. 1993. Distinguishing nymphal instars of Mesovelia mulsanti (Heteroptera: Mesoveliidae). The Great Lakes Entomologist 26(3):233-236.

ABSTRACT: The five nymphal instars of Mesovelia mulsanti can be separated by the number of rows of setae on the second abdominal tergum. Fifth instars can be separated from younger instars and from each other by the degree of develeopment of the external genitalia.
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McPherson, J. E., S. J. Taylor and S. L. Keffer. 1992. Evaluation of characters to distinguish Fitchia spinosula and F. aptera (Heteroptera: Reduviidae). The Florida Entomologist 75(2):222-230.

ABSTRACT: Presence or absence of spines, and number of spines (4), on the posterior margin of the pronotum were found to be an unreliable character to distinguish Fitchia aptera and F. spinosula. The morphology of the male parameres and female terminalia, and the color of the abdominal spiracular peritreme, are diagnostic. Other characters were found that, as a group in combination with presence of spines, are useful in distintguishing the two species but are not diagnostic. These include the lateral anteocular length, lengths and ratios of antennal segments, and width of the lateral abdominal stripe. Brachypterous and macropterous adults are found in both species; brachyptery is more common in F. spinosula than in F. aptera.
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McPherson, J. E., S. L. Keffer, and S. J. Taylor. 1992. Taxonomic status of Melanolestes picipes and M. abdominalis (Heteroptera: Reduviidae). The Florida Entomologist 74(3):396-403.

ABSTRACT: Melanolestes picipes has been separated from M. abdominalis on the basis of color (black in picipes, red wholly or in part in abdominalis), wing form (macropterous and brachypterous in picipes, macropterous in abdominalis), and size of ocelli (smaller in picipes). Evaluation of these charcters showed they were not diagnostic. We also examined the male and female external genitalia and found no consistent differences within sex between the two "species." We therefore conclude that M. abdominalis is not a valid species but is a junior synonym of M. picipes.
View document as PDF file (708 kb).

McPherson, J. E., R. J. Packauskas, S. J. Taylor, and M. F. O'Brien. 1990. Eastern range extension of Leptoglossus occidentalis with a key to Leptoglossus species of America north of Mexico (Heteroptera: Coreidae). The Great Lakes Entomologist 23(2):99-104.

ABSTRACT: Leptoglossus occidentalis is reported for the first time from Illinois and Michigan, and confirmed for Indiana. A key to the species of Leptoglossus occurring in America north of Mexico is presented.
View document as PDF file (584 kb).

Taylor, S. J. and J. E. McPherson. 1989. Distributional records of some Florida Aradidae (Heteroptera). Florida Entomologist 72(2):265-267.

ABSTRACT: The presence of 5 aradid species, Calisius contubernalis Bergroth, Acaricoris floridus Drake, Neoproxius gypsatus (Bergroth), Mezira sayi Kormilev, and Notapictinus aurivilli (Bergroth), in Florida is confirmed and new county records are provided. The occurrence of Acaricoris ignotus Harris and Drake is also added as a new Florida state record.
View document as PDF file (236 kb).

Taylor, S. J. and J. E. McPherson. 1989. State records and confirmations of Arkansas Flat Bugs (Heteroptera: Aradidae). The Great Lakes Entomologist 22(1):19-23.

ABSTRACT: Eight aradid species are reported for the first time from Arkansas including Aneurus pygmaeus, Aradus cincticornis, Aradus crenatus, Quilnus niger, Mezira granulata, Mezira lobata, Mezira sayi, and Neuroctenus simplex. The presence of Aradus acutus, Aradus falleni, and Aradus robustus in Arkansas is confirmed.
View document as PDF file (452 kb).

Taylor, S. J. and S. P. Lewis. 1989. Notes on the habitat and distribution of Acaricoris ignotus Harris and Drake (Heteroptera: Aradidae). The Southwestern Naturalist 34(1):154-155.

View document as PDF file (112 kb).

Taylor, S. J. 1988. Observations on parental care in the family Aradidae (Heteroptera). The Great Lakes Entomologist 21(4):159-161.

ABSTRACT: New observations of maternal care by Neuroctenus simplex and Neuroctenus elongatus are reported.
View document as PDF file (200 kb).

Taylor, S. J. 1988. Skototaxis in three species of flatbugs (Heteroptera: Aradidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 81(3):537-538.

ABSTRACT: Adults of three species of Aradidae, Neuroctenus simplex (Uhler), Mezira granulata (Say), and Mezira sayi Kormilev, were tested to determine if they orient towards dark objects. All three species showed a positive response to dark objects. No major differences between skototactic responses of males and females were detected. Skototaxis is probably important in aradid dispersal and habitat selection.
View document as PDF file (232 kb).

Leschen, R. A. B. and S. J. Taylor. 1987. Notes on the biology and distribution of Aradus robustus Uhler (Hemiptera: Aradidae). Entomological News 98(4):183-185.

ABSTRACT: The fungus Irpex lacteus is reported as a new host for Aradus robustus. New records of feeding, flight and mating are provided. New state records for the species are given for Arkansas and Mississippi along with additional records for Missouri and Florida.
View document as PDF file (236 kb).

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MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATIONS:

Baker, G.M., S.J. Taylor, M.A. Horner, J.K. Krejca, M.E. Slay and B.M. Roberts. 2012. Biodiversity in high-elevation caves in Great Basin National Park. Page 6 in Stratford, V. (ed.). Proceedings of the 20th National Cave & Karst Management Symposium. 177 p.

View document as PDF file (127 kb).

Taylor, S. J., A. Addison and T. Toulkeridis. Biological potential of under-studied cave fauna of the Galapagos Islands. Submitted to: ESPE Revista Geoespacial. (submitted 19 July 2011)

Soto-Adames, F. N. & S. J. Taylor. 2012. Status assessment survey for springtails (Collembola) in Illinois’ Salem Plateau caves. Illinois Natural History Survey Reports 407: 3.

View document as PDF file (816 kb).

Taylor, S. J. 2008. A trip to Illinois' Sinkhole Plain: In which nature hints, warns, and then speaks. Pages 140-145 in: Jeffords, M. R., S. L. Post, and C. Warwick, eds. Biologists in the field. Illinois Natural History Survey Educational Material 02. Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign. 224 pp.

Taylor, S. J., K. Hackley, J. K. Krejca, S. E. Greenberg, and M. L. Denight. 2008. Stable isotopes (delta13C, delta15N) as indicators of trophic structure in central Texas (USA) cave ecosystems. Page 233 in: Proceedings of the 14th International Congress of Speleology, 21-28 August 2005, Athens, Kalamos, Hellas. Hellenic Speleological Society, Athens, Greece. 715 pp.

Culver, D.C., P. Boston, M. Christman, V. Collins, J. Godwin, H. Hobbs, B. Holmes, J.R. Holsinger, T. Iliffe, J.K. Krejca, J.J. Lewis, K. O’Conner, T. Pipan, K. Schneider, S.J. Taylor, and M. Zagmajster. 2008. Focus group on subterranean biodiversity. Pages 98-99 in: Martin, J.B. and White, W.B. (eds.), Frontiers of karst research. Special Publication 13, Karst Waters Institute, Leesburg, Virginia. 118 pp.

(Email to request reprint)

Taylor, S. J. 2006. Cave bioinventory: new discoveries and ongoing research. The Midden [The Resource Management Newsletter of Great Basin National Park] 6(2):1

(Email to request reprint)

Scott, E. C., ... S. Taylor, et al. 2004. The morphology of Steve. Annals of Improbable Research 10(4):24-29.

(View full citation.)

View document as PDF file (484 kb).

Taylor, S. J. 2004. Cave adapted insects. Pages 473-476 in Capinera, John L. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Entomology. Kluwer Academic Publishers. xli + 2580 pp.).

Taylor, S. J. 2003. America, North: Biospeleology. Pages 45-49 in Gunn, John (ed.). Encyclopedia of Cave and Karst Science. Fitzroy Dearborn, New York. xviii+902 pp.

Taylor, S. J., C. J. Whelan, J. E. Smith, M. L. Denight, and M. Stake. 2003. Impact of Red Imported Fire Ants on the Black-capped Vireo, an Endangered Species. Illinois Natural History Survey Reports 377:3,7.

View document as PDF file (800 kb).

Venarsky, M. P., F. M. Wilhelm and S. J. Taylor. 2003. Cave amphipod respiration in southwestern Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Reports 375:2.

View document as PDF file (860 kb).

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2002. Illinois Cave Amphipod (Gammarus acherondytes) Recovery Plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ft. Snelling, Minnesota. vi + 63 p.

(Prepared for USFWS by the Illinois Cave Amphipod Recovery Team: J. Bade, S. J. Taylor, D. W. Webb, S. V. Panno, P. Moss, J. J. Lewis, D. Tecic, D. Brand, and K. Hartman, Jr.)

View document as PDF file (412 kb).

Krejca, J. K., D. A. Hendrickson, and S. J. Taylor. 2000. Using Prietella phreatophila (Ictaluridae) and other cave organisms to follow groundwater in Texas and México. Page 42 In: Hendrickson, D. A. and L. T. Findley (eds.). Proceedings of the Desert Fishes Council, Volume XXXI. 1999 Annual Symposium, 18-21 November, Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, México. 63 pp.

Krejca, J. K, S. J. Taylor, and D. A. Hendrickson. 2000. Recent investigations of the cave fauna of northern Mexico: the Mexican Blindcat research team. The NSS News 58(6):165-171.

Taylor, S. J. and D. W. Webb. 2000. Human impacts on groundwater quality and subterranean aquatic biota in southwestern Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Reports No. 361:2-3.

[see also web version]

View document as PDF file (276 kb).

Taylor, S. J. 1999. Some common animals found in Illinois Caverns. Pages 82-86 In: Southern Illinois Groundwater Protection Committee. Groundwater Protection Field Day Proceedings. Waterloo, Illinois. May 14, 1999. 96 pp.

near-identical document

Taylor, S. J., and D. W. Webb. 1998. The fragile fauna of Illinois caves. The Illinois Steward 7(2):2-6.

[see also web version]

Gardner, J. E., S. J. Taylor and J. K. Krejca. 1992. Cave Dwellers. Illinois Natural History Survey Reports No. 318:2-3.

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PRESENTATIONS:

Hoese, G.B. (presenter), S.W. Heads, J.K. Krejca, J. Jacoby, A.E. Beveridge, K.D. Hager, M.E. SLay, C.M. Slay and S.J. Taylor. 2012. 2011-2012 Biospeleological Expeditions to the Toledo District, Belize. International Exploration Session, National Speleological Society Convention. (25-29 June 2012, Lewisburg, West Virginia).

ABSTRACT:
We report on the first biospeleological expeditions focusing on the understudied Toledo District in southern Belize, undertaken in April 2011 and April-May 2012. Our work builds on previous exploratory, archaeological, and mapping trips by previous explorers too numerous to mention here.
Under permits from the Belize Institute of Archaeology and the Belize Forestry Department, more than a dozen caves were explored in the Toledo District in 2011 & 2012, with more than 2,000 invertebrates representing more than 80 unique taxa. In the first year, new species of crickets, arachnids, and millipedes, including a variety of cave adapted species, were discovered. In April-May 2012, additional biological material was collected from new and previously visited caves, in order to broaden our understanding of the ranges of the cave-adapted animals of southern Belize. These additional collections also resulted in the discovery of still more undescribed species.
Funding for these expeditions comes from the Subterranean Ecology Institute, an NSS International Exploration Grant, the University of Illinois, the Orthoptera Research Foundation, and individual contributions from the exploration teams.
View published abstract as PDF file (102 kb).

Heske, E.J., J.F. Merritt, S.J. Taylor, J.A. Kath, A.N. Miller, A.C. Yannarell, N. Mateus-Pinilla, V.P. Hustad, H.M. Lin, and R.D. McClanahan. 2012. Invasion of Illinois bat hibernacula by Geomyces destructans. Poster Presentation. 5th Annual White-Nose Syndrome Symposium (4-7 June 2012, Madison, Wisconsin).

ABSTRACT:
We are monitoring the invasion of Geomyces destructans in bat hibernacula in Illinois. Our team includes 3 mammalogists, a mycologist, a microbial ecologist, a wildlife veterinary epidemiologist, and a cave biologist, and is assisted by several resource managers. We use molecular and culture-based approaches to evaluate dead and live-caught bats and cave and mine substrates for the presence of G. destructans, and describe the microbial and fungal communities of sampled animals and caves. Beginning in winter 2012, we will visit about 8 hibernacula per year for 3 years, and sample active bats during summer. We are collecting swab and wing-punch samples from asymptomatic and symptomatic bats; soil, air, and various other substrate samples from hibernacula; and temperature, humidity, and light data to characterize cave environments. Our study will provide data on the occurrence and distribution of G. destructans in hibernacula on the leading edge of the spread of white-nose syndrome, and the microbial ecosystems in which it becomes established. Circumstances permitting (i.e., timing and extent of the invasion), we hope to better understand potential competing or synergistic interactions between G. destructans and microbial communities on bats and in caves that influence the establishment of G. destructans.
View poster as 8.5x11 inch PDF file (1 Mb).

Singh, K. (presenter), N. Mateus-Pinilla, Z. Demeter, C. Maddox, A.N. Miller, J.A. Kath, J.F. Merritt, E.J. Heske, S.J. Taylor, A.C. Yannarell. 2012. Histology and fungal microscopic morphology in 4 Illinois bats. Poster Presentation. 2012 Annual Meeting, Illinois Chapter of The Wildlife Society. (15-17 April 2012, Makanda, IIlinois).

Merritt, J.F., J.A. Kath, E.J. Heske (presenter), A.N. Miller, A.C. Yannarell, N. Mateus-Pinilla, V.P. Hustad, H.M. Lin, R.D. McClanahan, and S.J. Taylor. 2012. Current status of White-nose Syndrome research at Illinois bat hibernacula. Poster Presentation. 2012 Annual Meeting, Illinois Chapter of The Wildlife Society. (15-17 April 2012, Makanda, IIlinois).

Merritt, J.F. (presenter), J.A. Kath, E.J. Heske, A.N. Miller, A.C. Yannarell, N. Mateus-Pinilla, V.P. Hustad, H.M. Lin, R.D. McClanahan, and S.J. Taylor. 2012. Current status of White-nose Syndrome research at Illinois bat hibernacula. Poster Presentation. 2012 Midwest Bat Working Group Meeting. (5-6 April 2012, Terra Haute, Indiana).

ABSTRACT:
In anticipation of the invasion of Geomyces destructans we are monitoring bat hibernacula in Illinois. We use molecular and culture-based approaches to evaluate dead and live-caught bats and cave and mine substrates for the presence of G. destructans, and describe the microbial and fungal communities of sampled animals and caves. Beginning in winter 2012, we will visit about 7-8 hibernacula per year for 3 years, and will also conduct limited sampling of active bats during the summer. We are collecting swab and wing-punch samples from asymptomatic and symptomatic bats; soil, air, and various other substrate samples from hibernacula; and temperature, humidity, and light data to characterize cave environments. These data will inform our understanding of the occurrence and distribution of G. destructans in hibernacula on the leading edge of the spread of white-nose syndrome, and the fungal and microbial ecosystems in which it becomes established. Depending on the timing and extent of the invasion into Illinois, we may be able to provide new insights into how interactions between G. destructans and other components of fungal microbial communities on bats and in caves influence the establishment of G. destructans.
View poster as 8.5x11 inch PDF file (1.4 Mb).

Taylor, S.J. 2011. Cave life: fragile ecosystems sensitive to change. Prairie Lightning Symposium (16-17 November 2011, Prairie Research Institute, University of Illinois, Champaign, Illinois).

ABSTRACT:
Cave ecosystems include many organisms adapted to stable conditions in unique subterranean environments. Yet the lives of these organisms are closely tied to above ground ecosystems as a source for energy, and thus they are affected by environmental perturbations. Examples of the sensitive nature of this connectivity will be presented.

Soto-Adames, F.N. (presenter) and S.J. Taylor. 2011. Status assessment survey for springtails (Collembola) in Illinois caves: The Salem Plateau. Poster Presentation. Prairie Lightning Symposium (16-17 November 2011, Prairie Research Institute, University of Illinois, Champaign, Illinois).
[previously presented at Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting (12-15 December 2010)]

View poster as small, low resolution PDF file (1.2 mb).
View poster full-sized, as giant PDF file (30 mb).

Taylor, S.J., R.G. Weck, M.R. Douglas, J.S. Tiemann, and C.A. Phillips. 2011. Population monitoring of Illinois’ state endangered Enigmatic Cavesnail (Hydrobiidae). National Cave and Karst Management Symposium 2011 (3-7 October, Midway, Utah).

ABSTRACT:
The Enigmatic Cavesnail, Fontigens antroecetes Hubricht (Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae) is known from only a single site in Illinois, Stemler Cave (St. Clair County). Other populations current identified as belonging to this species occur in Missouri. We initiated population monitoring in September 2009, and this monitoring continues through the present. We present findings thus far on snail densities and substrate preferences as determined by our sampling. We have also surveyed other sites in Missouri and Illinois to establish occupancy rates. No additional populations have been found in Illinois, and material from Missouri was confirmed at least to the generic level, with some material collected for comparative molecular analyses. The snail is threatened by declines in water quality, which likely are associated with changing land use practices accompanying urban sprawl in the greater St. Louis metropolitan area. The Enigmatic Cavesnail receives some protection in Illinois, both as a state-endangered species and because its range overlaps with that of the Illinois Cave Amphipod, federally listed as endangered. Within the drainage basin of Stemler Cave, the Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Illinois Nature Preserves Commission, and a variety of private groups, have been working to acquire natural areas upstream of the cave to help protect watershed integrity. Long-term protection of this species will require acquisition of better scientific data as well as vigilant and thoughtful land management.

Slay, M.E. (presenter) and S.J. Taylor. 2011. Ongoing conservation efforts to protect the Foushee cavesnail, Amnicola cora (Hydrobiidae). National Cave and Karst Management Symposium 2011 (3-7 October, Midway, Utah).

ABSTRACT:
The Foushee cavesnail, Amnicola cora Hubricht 1979 (Gastropoda: Neotaenioglossa: Hydrobiidae), is a single-site endemic stygobiont found in Foushee Cave, Independence Co., Arkansas. Because little information was available concerning this species, a project was initiated in 2007 to establish baseline data on habitat use and population size. Sampling trips occurred during late spring and summer months to minimize disturbance to hibernating gray bats (Myotis griscesens) and at monthly intervals to minimize in-stream trampling of cavesnails. We established 25 sampling locations along the first ~1,000 m of cave stream and counted snails that occurred within a 0.05 m2 quadrat placed haphazardly at each location. To characterize habitat use, we quantified snail position on substrate and measured water depth, flow, and substrate proportions. Sampling occurred during 3 visits in 2007 and 3 visits in 2011. The quadrat census project spurred additional conservation efforts by several Arkansas state agencies. The potential for groundwater impacts to the cave system was assessed with funding from Arkansas Game and Fish Commission, and this funding was used to delineate the recharge boundary, characterize vulnerability, and document point hazards. Following the recharge delineation, a landowner parcel assessment was conducted to determine number and size of parcels that overlay the cave system. This information was then used by Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission to identify landowners interested in selling property and several land acquisitions are now in progress. Following these acquisitions, over 80% of land recharging groundwater to Foushee Cave will be part of a new Arkansas state natural area.

Baker, G.M. (presenter), S.J. Taylor, M.A. Horner, J.K. Krejca, M.E. Slay, and B.M. Roberts . 2011. Biodiversity in High-Elevation Caves in Great Basin National Park. National Cave and Karst Management Symposium 2011 (3-7 October, Midway, Utah).

ABSTRACT:
In 2007, cave biologists and park staff conducted biological surveys in seven high elevation caves, all above 3000 m, in Great Basin National Park. Few cave biota were expected due to the cold temperatures of the caves, their distance from other caves, and limited nutrient inputs. However, these caves turned out to have abundant and diverse cave life, including several species endemic to the South Snake Range such as the pseudoscorpion Microcreagris grandis, the millipede Idagona lehmanensis, and the harvestman Cyptobunus ungulatus ungulatus. Additional cave biota found in some of these high elevation caves included springtails, cave crickets, flies, spiders, mites, and diplurans. These were also found at lower elevation caves in the park. Some species found in lower elevation caves, such as the millipede Nevadesmus ophipmontis and the globular springtail Pygmarrhopalites shoshoneiensis were absent from the high elevation caves. The facultatively trogloxenic butterfly, Milbert’s Tortoiseshell Aglais milberti, was only recorded in two high elevation caves. Some high elevation caves had a number of unique taxa, largely due to accidentals found at their cave entrances. The elevation of the cave did not appear to have a significant correlation with the number of taxa nor the number of unique taxa. The biological complexity found in these high elevation caves alerted managers to the biodiversity found throughout the park’s elevation range. The park plans to conduct additional monitoring of biota and climatic conditions to better understand these cave ecosystems.

Taylor, S.J. 2011. Biology & Management of Texas Cave Invertebrates. The Program in Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation Biology. School of Integrative Biology, University of Illinois (21 September 2011, Champaign, Illinois).

Taylor, S.J. (presenter), M.E. Slay, G.B. Hoese, J.K. Krejca, C.M. Slay, and J. Jacoby. 2011. The cave fauna of Toledo District of Belize: a preliminary assessment. National Speleological Society Convention (18-22 July 2011, Glenwood Springs, Colorado).

ABSTRACT: Previous studies of the cave fauna of Belize have focused on the fauna of the Cayo District, summarized by Reddell through 1981. In subsequent years, a number of new species descriptions have come out of this work in the Cayo District, and variety of troglobites are now known, including a troglobitic crab, troglobitic psuedoscorpions, spiders, opilionids, and other taxa.
We report on preliminary findings from the first biospeleological expedition focusing on the understudied Toledo District, in southern Belize, undertaken between 6 and 19 April, 2011, and building on previous exploratory and mapping trips by Tom Miller and associates, Trekforce (UK), the South Wales Caving Club, and others.
Our sampling of seven caves and three wells in the Toledo District has yielded a number of probable new troglobites, including a polydesmid milliped, a pseudoscorpion, a trichniscid isopod, a phalangodid harvestman, entomobryiid springtails, a schizomid, a campodeid dipluran, a rhagidiid mite, and spiders. Other organisms recorded include rhaphidophorid crickets, troglomorphic gryllid crickets, amblypigids, chernetid pseudoscorpions, pselaphid beetles, and scutigeromorph centipedes. No stygobionts were collected. These new discoveries from the Toledo District are compared to the known cave fauna of the Cayo District of Belize.
Funding for this study comes from the Subterranean Ecology Institute and an NSS International Exploration Grant.
[strikeout indicates text included in published abstract which was later determined to be incorrect]

Yannarell, A.C. (presenter), R. Busby, M.L. Denight, D.L. Gebhart and S.J. Taylor. 2011. Differential responses of soil bacterial and fungal communities in heavily invaded stands of the invasive legume, Lespedeza cuneata. Poster Presentation. 111th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology (20-24 May 2011, New Orleans, LA).

ABSTRACT:
Background: The invasive legume, Lespedeza cuneata, has the potential to affect soil microbial communities through direct symbiotic interactions and indirectly by the novel secondary chemistry of its litter. The aim of this work is characterize the impact of L. cuneata on soil bacterial and fungal communities throughout its U.S. invaded range.
Methods: We sampled the root zones of L. cuneata, native legumes, and bulk soil from natural areas of five military installations throughout the invaded range. At each installation, collections were made in three areas: high, low, and no density of L. cuneata. We extracted bulk DNA and used a PCR-based, whole community "fingerprinting" analysis to characterize bacterial and fungal communities. Permutational ANOVA was used to detect significant differences between sites and different plants.
Result: Significant variation between military installations was found for both bacterial (p=0.04) and fungal (p < 0.001) communities. Across the invaded range, sites with high densities of L. cuneata had bacterial communities that were statistically distinct (p = 0.007) from sites with no or low densities of L. cuneata, but this was not true for fungal communities (p = 1.0). For samples collected at the same site, neither bacterial nor fungal communities were statistically different when comparing root zones of different plants to each other or to bulk soil.
Conclusions: 1) L. cuneata has limited or no influence on soil microbial communities at the scale of individual plants. 2) However, it can significantly alter the bacterial species pool once it attains dominance at a site. This site-scale effect may alter potential bacterial interactions with native and non-native plants, providing feedback to plant fitness or competitive interactions.

Soto-Adames, F. N. and S. J. Taylor (presenter). 2010. Status assessment survey for springtails (Collembola) in Illinois caves: The Salem Plateau. Poster Presentation. Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting (12-15 December 2010), San Diego, California. Systematics, Evolution and Biodiversity Section.

View poster as small, low resolution PDF file (1.2 mb).
View poster full-sized, as giant PDF file (30 mb).

Yannarell, A. C. (presenter), R. Busby, D. L. Gebhart, M. L. Denight, and S. J. Taylor. 2010. The invasive legume, Lespedeza cuneata, alters soil microbial communities in heavily invaded stands. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America 2010 International Annual Meetings (31 Oct-4 Nov), Long Beach, California. Military Land Use & Management Division, General Military Land Use & Management Session. 3 November 2010.

ABSTRACT: Interactions with soil microorganisms may contribute to the success of invasive plants. The invasive legume, Lespedeza cuneata, has spread throughout much of the eastern United States, reducing native plant diversity. The aim of this work was to characterize the impact of L. cuneata on soil bacterial and fungal communities at multiple scales of investigation. We sampled the root zones of L. cuneata, native legumes, and bulk soil from natural areas of five military installations throughout the invaded range. At each installation, collections were made in three areas: high, low, and no density of L. cuneata. We extracted bulk DNA and used a PCR-based, whole community "fingerprinting" analysis to characterize bacterial and fungal communities. We used multivariate data analyses and a variance partitioning scheme to characterize patterns of bacterial and fungal species turnover. Bacterial and fungal communities showed similar patterns of variation in our sample set. Overall, the plant species was the greatest influence on microbial community composition, but this was largely due to unique microbial communities found in the root zones of native legumes in areas free of L. cuneata. Microbial communities from the root zones of L. cuneata were not statistically different from those of bulk soil or of co-occurring plants. However, sites with high densities of L. cuneata had microbial communities that were statistically distinct (p = 0.005) from sites with no or low densities of L. cuneata. This effect was consistent across the entire sampled range (i.e. independent of geographical differences). While L. cuneata has a limited influence on soil microbial communities at the scale of individual plants, it may exert a large influence on the local microbial species pool once it attains dominance at a site. This site-scale effect may feed back to plant fitness or to competitive interactions between L. cuneata and native legumes.

Barnes, J. K. (presenter), M. E. Slay, and S. J. Taylor. 2009. Adult Diptera from Ozark Caves. Poster Presentation: Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting. (13-16 December, 2009, Indianapolis, Indiana).

Denight, M. L. (presenter), A. Hagar, D. L. Gebhart, S. J. Taylor, and R. Busby . 2009. Effects of plant growth regulators on invasive species. Poster presentation. Session: Invasive Species in the Landscape. 2009 International Annual Meetings ASA-CSSA-SSSA (1-5 November 2009, Pittsburgh, PA).

ABSTRACT: The technical objectiveof this project was to investigate the role of plant growth regulators on seed germination and plant responsiveness of invasive species. Two plant growth regulators, abscisic acid and gibberellic acid were evaluated for their effects on the imbibition, germination and growth rates of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) and Sericea Lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) seeds.
 
The experimental design included several treatments at differing concentrations of plant growth regulators, compared to a control, to investigate variations in seed germination rates and growth rates of the three invasive plants. For the germination studies 20 seeds of each plant species were placed into Petri dishes containing either distilled water or treatment solutions of 0, 0.1, 1 and 10 mM gibberellic acid (GA) and treatment solutions of 0, 0.1, 1 and 10 mM abscisic acid (ABA). Germination was judged visually by cracking of the seed coat, determined on a daily basis throughout 1 to 28 days of incubation. ABA was shown to promote and maintain seed dormancy, while GA reduced seed dormancy in the invasive plant species.
 
A major problem in preventing invasion by undesirable species is our ability to manage plant establishment, which is largely controlled by the timing of seed germination and rapid growth rates. These attributes provide a selective advantage over native species by contributing to an invasive species ability to establish itself on disturbed lands and reproduce. While commercially available growth regulators are commonly used to suppress seed germination and reduce vegetative growth in turfgrass such as tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum), very little work has been done looking at the use of growth regulators for the control and management of invasive weeds. The results of this study will provide information about the control and management of invasive plant species using phytohormones.

Gebhart, D. L. (presenter), A. C. Yannarell, R. Busby, M. L. Denight, C. Arnett, and S. J. Taylor. 2009. Divergence of rhizobia and mycorrhizae from native and introduced Lespedeza species. Poster presentation. Session: Invasive Species in the Landscape. 2009 International Annual Meetings ASA-CSSA-SSSA (1-5 November 2009, Pittsburgh, PA).

ABSTRACT: Severely disturbed grasslands and shrublands are often colonized by non-mycorrhizal plant species, and succession generally proceeds to species more dependent on mycorrhizae, as mycorrhizea increase in the soil over time. It is hypothesized that some invasive species may arrest this successional progression by suppressing density and diversity of soil symbionts. This paper will highlight divergence of mycorrhizae and Rhizobia from root and rhizosphere soil samples collected from both native and introduced/invasive Lespedeza species dominated sites across a wide geographic gradient in North America.

Taylor, S. J. (presenter), J. K. Krejca, and M. E. Slay. 2009. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Terrestrial Macroinvertebrates in Lehman Caves, a Tourist Cave in Great Basin National Park, Nevada, USA. Poster Presentation. 15th International Congress of Speleology (19-26 July, Kerrville, Texas).

ABSTRACT:Monthly macroinvertebrate counts and measures of physical and environmental parameters were used to study the biology and distribution of cave species in Lehman Caves (White Pine County, Nevada), which averages more than 30,000 visitors per year. Counts at paired bait stations (near-trail and far-from-trail) demonstrated that diversity and abundance drop off with increasing distance into the cave. This pattern is correlated with changes in environmental parameters (2 cm soil temperature, air temperature, humidity, lower available nutrients), but also with human visitation levels which decrease with increasing distance into the cave. Analysis of near-trail vs. far-from-trail bait stations showed no consistent differences in abundance and diversity. Measures of physical and environmental parameters in 30 study plots showed an expected distribution of troglophiles nearer to the entrance and troglobionts far from the entrance. We were not able to demonstrate that tourist trails in Lehman Caves are affecting the diversity or abundance of the fauna, although two Park-endemic troglobionts were more abundant at low impact sites and far from trails. Microcreagris grandis (Pseudoscorpionida: Chelonethida: Neobisiidae), presently classified as a troglobiont, was found more commonly proximal to the entrance than in more remote areas, suggesting possible reclassification as a troglophile. Our results point to the importance of maintaining healthy, low impact areas near entrances of commercial caves.
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Taylor, S. J. (presenter), J. K. Krejca, and K. C. Hackley. 2008. Urban and rural cave invertebrate communities: Isotopic evaluation of trophic structure (δ13C, δ15N) & the relationship between taxa richness and cover types in central Texas, U.S.A. 19th International Symposium of Subterranean Biology (21-26 September, Freemantle, Australia).

ABSTRACT:The energy regime in small Texas (U.S.A) caves differs significantly from many caves of the better studied eastern United States in that surface-foraging cave crickets (Ceuthophilus spp.) are major contributors to these systems. The federally listed endangered cave invertebrates of central Texas are dependent on these crickets to transport energy from the surface to the cave environment. Using stable isotope analysis in combination with in-cave counts of animal life we examined cave invertebrate communities in nine caves chosen based on their low, medium, and high levels of human impact. Surface foraging cave crickets do not utilize the same food resources as the invasive red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicata). The trophic position of the entire cave invertebrate community differed significantly between all three levels of human impact, for both δ13C and δ15N. Numbers of individuals of all cave taxa, including Ceuthophilus spp., are correlated with the level of human impact. As the percentage of impervious cover and percentage of impacted area increased, the total number of cave taxa decreased. This trend held true when either 11.2 or 90 acres around the cave entrance were considered in scoring the level of impact. Additionally, the total number of individuals of other taxa recorded from the caves was strongly correlated with the total number cave crickets. Maintaining land in a natural state within the foraging range of cave crickets (C. secretus and C. species B), and controlling the fire ant, S. invicta, are therefore important considerations in the management of Texas' federally listed endangered cave invertebrates.

Taylor, S. J. (presenter) and R. L. Lampman. 2008. Overwintering mosquitoes in Illinois stormwater tunnels & caves. Poster presentation, The 100th Annual Meeting Illinois State Academy of Science (4-5 April, Champaign, Illinois).

ABSTRACT:Mosquitoes in temperate areas of North America typically survive the winter in either a facultative reproductive diapause in the adult stage (Culex, Culiseta, Uranotaenia, and Anopheles species) or as dormant, desiccation resistant eggs (Aedes, Ochlerotatus, and Psorphora). Pathogens like West Nile virus may utilize the winter behavior of the mosquito as a means of surviving in an area; that is, maintain itself in the over-wintering vector and re-emerge the following season. Adult mosquitoes require areas that remain above freezing and have high relative humidities, such as natural caves. Our goal is to survey various winter hibernacula for mosquitoes to determine which species are found in different types of natural and anthropogenic structures. We collected mosquitoes from several natural caves and found Culex erraticus, Cx. pipiens complex species, Anopheles species, and Uranotaenia sapphirina. All of these species have been reported in some state as associated with West Nile virus. Interestingly, humans create hibernacula for some vector species by building vast underground stormwater systems that mimic a large, interconnected underground system. Our data compare mosquitoes in natural caves to storm water tunnels.
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Tinerella, P.P. (presenter) and S. J. Taylor. 2008. From Days of Oar: Preliminary Results of a Survey of the Water Bugs of Illinois (Insecta: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha). Poster presentation, The 100th Annual Meeting Illinois State Academy of Science (4-5 April, Champaign, Illinois).

ABSTRACT:The results of an ongoing statewide survey of aquatic true bugs (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha) are presented. No such published investigation exists, although Lauck in 1959 reported on the state's water bug fauna in an unpublished Master's thesis. Aquatic bugs are common in a wide variety of habitats throughout Illinois and form an integral component of aquatic ecosystems. Eight families, represented by 16 genera and 40 species have been recorded from Illinois. Herein we report several additional species and assess the distribution of Nepomorpha in Illinois, as well as the potential for additional taxa from ongoing intensive survey efforts directed at the state's water bug fauna.
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Randrianandrasana, M. (presenter) and S. J. Taylor. 2007. Feeding habits of immature stages of Isoperla nana (Insecta: Plecoptera: Perlodidae) in Jordan Creek (Vermilion County, Illinois). Poster presentation, 55th Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America (9-12 December, San Diego, California).

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Taylor, S. J., C. A. Phillips, J. K. Krejca (presenter), and M. J. Dreslik. 2007. Population estimates and age class structure of the salamander Plethodon albagula (Plethodontidae) at Fort Hood, Texas. Texas Herpetological Society, Fall 2007 Symposium (3 November, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas).

ABSTRACT:Populations of geographically disjunct, morphologically unique Plethodon albagula salamanders, which along with a population in Williamson County, is genetically divergent from other P. albagula, occur at Ft. Hood (Coryell and Bell counties), Texas. This study examines population size, age class structure and growth at two of the 30+ known localities at Fort Hood, using timed area searches, morphological measurements, and mark-release-recapture methods. Time-constrained sampling at Bear Spring and Estes Cave on 15 occasions each yielded 749 salamander encounters. Schnabel and Schumacher- Eschmeyer estimates of population sizes were 795 and 1077, respectively, for Bear Springs, and 89 and 97, respectively, for Estes Cave. Salamanders from the cave were significantly larger than the spring based on four size metrics (snout-vent length, total length, mass and volume). The size class distribution at Bear Springs suggests that hatching may occur in November through January. The salamanders reach sexual maturity after four years and may live for five or more years. The population at Estes Cave had a dissimilar pattern, with no obvious hatching time and salamanders were less abundant in the smaller size classes.

Taylor, S. J.(presenter), J. K. Krejca, and J. Jacoby. 2007. Assessing biological resources of caves in Lava Beds national Monument, California. Special Session on Cave Research in the Western United States, Ninth Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau, (29 October-1 November, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona).

ABSTRACT:Lava Beds National Monument contains more than 500 lava tube caves and features, with more than 28 miles of passages that are home to a variety of cave-adapted organisms. We studied cavernicolous invertebrates in twenty-nine (29) caves between 2 June and 4 August 2005. Most of these caves had a dark zone varying from just above freezing to about 12 °C, where relative humidity varied from about 85 to 100%. In 193 biological samples, 1,511 specimens were recorded. Of the animals recorded, 22.6% were flies (Diptera), 19.3% were springtails (Collembola), 16% were spiders (Araneae), 12.2% were millipedes (Diplopoda), 11.7% were mites (Acari), and 5.3% were diplurans (Diplura). A variety of other animal taxa make up the remaining 12.9%.
 
Two common, large troglobitic invertebrates are the millipede Plumatyla humerosa and the dipluran Haplocampa sp. Common and nearly ubiquitous springtails of the family Tomoceridae (probably Tomocerus spp.) are important members of the Lava Beds cave community, and account for more than half of all springtails. Woodrats (Neotoma spp.) and bats (Vespertilionidae) are especially important in bringing nutrients into these caves, and bacteria and fungi growing on their feces provide energy to other cave animals.
 :
Notable undescribed taxa include an terrestrial troglobitic isopod (Trichoniscidae: Amerigoniscus n. sp.) which was rarely encountered, a psocopteran (Psyllipsocidae: Psyllipsocus n. sp.), a blind linyphiid spider, and a troglobitic pseudoscorpion (Arachnida). Richness of the taxa showed no discernable patterns with respect to their association with different lava flows, vegetation zones, or elevation.

Taylor, S. J. (presenter), J. K. Krejca, and M. E. Slay. 2007. Preliminary results of a cave bioinventory at Great Basin National Park. Special Session on Cave Research in the Western United States, Ninth Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau, (29 October-1 November, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona).

ABSTRACT:Great Basin National Park, Nevada, is located in one of the numerous mountain ranges in the Great Basin. A variety of rock types are present in the Park, and caves can be found at various elevations wherever large units of limestone are exposed at the surface. Notable among these caves is Lehman Caves, which is accessible to the public via guided tours. Here we report preliminary findings from an ongoing bioinventory of these caves, begun in January 2003, and concluding in March 2008.
 
Undescribed, cave-limited species in the Park include a previously known dipluran (Campodiidae), along with three taxa we have discovered: two millipedes and a globular springtail (Arrhopalites n. sp.). One of the millipedes, Idagona lehmanensis Shear (Conotylidae) was described this year. The geographic distribution of two known troglobites, Microcragris grandis, a pseudoscorpion (Neobisiidae), and Cryptobunus ungulatus ungulatus, a harvestman (Triaenonychidae), have been expanded, and C. u. ungulatus was recorded from caves near the base of the mountain range as well as caves near timberline. We have found several troglophilic taxa which may be new species, including a third millipede found primarily in high elevation caves.
 
An ongoing evaluation of the biological impacts of visitation on Lehman Caves includes timed bioinventories throughout the year at bait stations near to, and far from, the tour trail in different parts of the cave which vary in levels of human impacts.
 
In the course of the ongoing study we have also trained Park personnel, produced photographs for interpretive use, identified potential threats to the caves, recommended monitoring techniques, and identified areas for future research.

Slay, M. E. (presenter) and S. J. Taylor. 2007. Preliminary results on habitat use and density of the Foushee cavesnail, Amnicola cora (Hydrobiidae). Poster presentation. National Cave and Karst Management Symposium (8-12 October , St. Louis, Missouri).

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Taylor, S. J. (presenter), J. K. Krejca, and J. Jacoby. 2006. A biological assessment of caves in Lava Beds National Monument, California. National Speleological Society Convention (August 11, Bellingham, Washington).

ABSTRACT:Lava Beds National Monument contains more than 500 lava tube caves and features, with more than 28 miles of passages that are home to a variety of cave-adapted organisms. We studied cavernicolous invertebrates in 29 caves between 2 June and 4 August 2005. Most of these caves had a dark zone varying from just above freezing to about 12 �C, where relative humidity varied from about 85 to 100%. In 193 biological samples, 1,511 specimens were recorded. Of the animals recorded, 22.6% were flies (Diptera), 19.3% were springtails (Collembola), 16% were spiders (Araneae), 12.2% were millipedes (Diplopoda), 11.7% were mites (Acari), and 5.3% were diplurans (Diplura). A variety of other animal taxa make up the remaining 12.9%.
 
Two common, large troglobitic invertebrates are the millipede Plumatyla humerosa and the dipluran Haplocampa sp. Common and nearly ubiquitous springtails of the family Tomoceridae (probably Tomocerus spp.) are important members of the Lava Beds cave community, and account for more than half of all springtails. Woodrats (Neotoma spp.) and bats (Vespertilionidae) are especially important in bringing nutrients into these caves, and bacteria and fungi growing on their feces provide energy to other cave animals.
 
Notable taxa include a terrestrial troglobitic isopod (Trichoniscidae), which was rarely encountered, and a troglobitic pseudoscorpion (Arachnida), which is almost certainly new to science. Richness of the taxa showed no discernable patterns with respect to their association with different lava flows, vegetation zones, or elevation.

Slay, M. E. (presenter), S. J. Taylor, S. R. Ahler, and W. C. Handel. 2006. Patterns of cavernicole diversity and abundance in Pulaski County, Missouri. National Speleological Society Convention (August 11, Bellingham, Washington).

ABSTRACT:Fort Leonard Wood, a military base on the Ozark Plateau, contains more than 65 caves, springs, and rock shelters. We inventoried the biota of 64 sites between March 2003 and September 2005, recording microhabitat, temperature, light, and relative humidity data, and inventorying plants near many of the cave entrances.
 
Patterns of cavernicole distribution in relation to cave length and ecological classification were examined. We made 2,259 cave fauna observations during 108 site visits, documenting the presence of 13,975 animals belonging to 155 taxa in 89 families, 42 orders, and 13 classes. Nearly 64% of the taxa occurred at five or fewer sites, while only 8.4% (12) taxa occurred at more than 25 of the 64 sites. Many of the taxa showed a tendency to be associated with mammal scat, especially raccoon feces and bat guano. Substrate and moisture also proved to be important.
 
Large and medium length caves had significantly higher cavernicole richness than did smaller caves, shelters, and springs. Using various richness estimators, we attempted to determine what portion of the fauna we had recorded. Overall, we documented 79.6% (Jackknife 2 estimator) to 94.4% (Chao 1 estimator) of the cavernicole fauna.
 
Among the organisms encountered were a troglobitic isopod (Trichoniscidae) formerly thought to be a single cave endemic in extreme south-central Missouri, and a new species of subterranean Diacyclops (Crustacea: Copepoda) that is presently being described. Other taxa awaiting analysis include globular springtails, Arrhopalites sp., cave millipedes, an undescribed dipluran (Campodeidae), and rhagidiid mites.

Taylor, S. J. (presenter), M. E. Slay, S. R. Ahler, and W. C. Handel. 2006. Patterns of cavernicole diversity and abundance in Pulaski County, Missouri. Poster presentation, Missouri Academy of Science (21-22 April 2006, Kirksville, Missouri).

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Taylor, S.J. (presenter), K. Hackley, J. K. Krejca, S. E. Greenberg, and M. L. Denight. 2005. Stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) as indicators of trophic structure in central Texas (USA) cave ecosystems. 14th International Congress of Speleology (21-28 August, Athens-Kalamos, Greece).

ABSTRACT: Caves in central Texas (USA) harbor numerous rare and endemic invertebrate species, some of which are listed as federally endangered species. The various cave invertebrates, including species of spiders, millipedes, and beetles appear to be threatened by the invasive Red Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Solenopsis invicta), which forages within the caves. We briefly review the biology of typical cave communities of central Texas, with emphasis on the role of surface foraging Ceuthophilus (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae) species, then present results of a study of carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (delta13C, delta15N) s of the cave communities. We studies three caves at Fort Hood, a military installation in Bell and Coryell counties, Texas. More than 70 samples, representing 18 cave-inhabiting invertebrate species, were collected from two caves in November 2003, and two caves in May 2004, along with more than 100 samples of a plants growing around the cave entrances. Dried samples were analyzed for nitrogen and carbon isotopes using a mass spectrometer with an attached elemental analyzer. We found some isotopic differences between caves and between sampling seasons. In addition, the differences in delta15N between two co-occurring Ceuthophilus species provides evidence that they function at differing trophic levels. Our data suggest many of the cave taxa feed at more than one trophic level, and thus source partitioning of isotope fractionation appears to reflect complex trophic relationships. Many of the taxa feed within a single food chain, and thus all are dependent on a single energy source. Protection of rare or federally species, then, depends on maintaining the entire cave ecosystem to protect top predators (e.g., Cicurina spiders). Knowledge gained regarding trophic relations can facilitate development of management plans for central Texas caves, and is applicable to the management of the federally endangered cavernicoles.

Taylor, S. J., M. L. Denight (presenter), A. V. Suarez, C. H. Dietrich, and K. Ramsdell. 2005. Monitoring terrestrial insect biodiversity on forested & cleared land at Camp Atterbury, Indiana. Poster presentation, 14th Annual Integrated Training Area Management (ITAM) workshop (1-4 August, Indianapolis, Indiana).

Taylor, S. J. (presenter), M. E. Slay, and S. R. Ahler. 2005. A biological survey of caves at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. National Speleological Society Convention (July 8, Huntsville, Alabama).

ABSTRACT:We surveyed the aquatic and terrestrial fauna of 74 sites, mostly caves, at Fort Leonard Wood, a 71,000 acre (28,700 hectare) military installation located near the northern boarder of the Ozark Plateau (Pulaski County) in central Missouri in 2003 and 2004. All but one of the known caves were sampled, and all taxa, including entrance taxa, accidentals, troglophiles, and vertebrates were noted, thus providing a fairly complete picture of the cave fauna of the northern Ozarks. Using a variety of sampling methods (pitfall trapping, baited aquatic traps, hand collections, vacuum samples, leaf litter samples, and sight records) we recorded more than 2,200 taxon occurrences, representing almost 14,000 specimens. Using species accumulation curves we examine the extent to which our sampling protocol sampled the taxa within the caves. Substrate temperature, relative humidity, and substrate type are correlated with the presence of particular taxa, such as diplurans. Several interesting taxa were recorded including cave-adapted flatworms, terrestrial isopods (Brackenridgia sp.), Symphyla, and sometimes quite abundant diplurans. In combination with a concurrent archeological study and cave mapping, the results of this study facilitate informed management of caves by military natural resources personnel.

Krejca, J. K. (presenter), S. J. Taylor, C. A. Phillips and M. L. Denight. 2005 Management concerns for cave ecosystems in central Texas. Strategic Environmental Research & Development Program, Technical Symposium & Workshop: Threatened, Endangered, and at-Risk Species on Department of Defense and Adjacent Lands (7-9 June, Baltimore, Maryland). (7-9 June, Baltimore, Maryland).

ABSTRACT:Fort Hood, Texas has over two hundred documented cave and karst features which contain endemic arthropods and an undescribed species of Plethodon salamander. Management concerns for these organisms center around land use and the introduced red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. To address the issue of land use buffers, we asked the question: How far from entrances do cave crickets, a keystone species in the cave community, forage at night? Using UV fluorescent paint, foraging distances were found to be up to 105 m (the maximum area searched) with fairly uniform densities out to 80 m from cave entrances. A follow-up study using radio transmitters revealed differences in foraging by sex and also showed movement between caves. Another question asked was: To what extent do fire ants forage in caves? Baiting as well as quadrat counts showed that in-cave foraging by fire ants was much less than on the surface and primarily in the shallow entrance areas (<18m distance, <7m depth). In our sample of six caves, presence of fire ants in caves was negatively related to species richness, but not significantly (p=0.075). Fire ants were dominant (>2%) in 3/6 sites, and their presence in caves had seasonal and microclimatic patterns. A final question currently being addressed is: Are there patterns between fire ant and Plethodon sp. distribution or population size? An initial study showed no significant relationship between distribution of fire ants and Plethodon, and ongoing work is documenting population size at two localities.

Taylor, S. J., M. E. Slay (presenter), and S. R. Ahler. 2005. Development & field-testing of base-line inventory & monitoring protocols for cave biota at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. Missouri Academy of Sciences Annual State Meeting (15-16 April, Lincoln University of Missouri, Jefferson City, Missouri).

Venarsky, M. P. (presenter), F. M. Wilhelm, F. Anderson, and S. J. Taylor. 2005. Life history and reproductive timing of the endangered Illinois cave amphipod, Gammarus acherondytes. Joint Assembly Meeting (23-27 May, New Orleans, Louisiana).

ABSTRACT:To aid the recovery of endangered species requires an understanding of their basic biology. Armed with such knowledge, meaningful management plans with realistic objectives can be established. We examined the life history and reproductive biology of Gammarus acherondytes, a federally endangered cave amphipod, in Reverse Stream, Monroe Co., Illinois. The population was sampled non-destructively at monthly intervals from October 2003 to February 2005. The density of gravid females peaked twice annually, (November-December and June-July) indicating major reproductive events. Gravid females also occurred at other times of the year but at low densities. Two major peaks in the density of newborn young were also observed, which lagged the density of gravid females by approximately 1-2 months. We believe this reproductive pattern is related to the influx of organic matter from mid summer storm events and leaf abscission in autumn. Young grew at a rate of 0.034 mm/day and likely reach reproductive size in one year. Adults are iteroparous and may live for several years. Our results suggest that limiting cave access in highly visited caves during peak reproduction may be a simple strategy to increase the abundance of G. acherondytes.

Taylor, S. J. (presenter), J. K. Krejca, M. L. Denight, K. Hackley, S. E. Greenberg, M. J. Dreslik, J. E. Smith, and M. Muyot. 2005. Structure of cave communities and cave cricket foraging behavior at Fort Hood, Texas. Department of Defense Natural Resources Training Workshop, National Military Fish and Wildlife Association Meeting (14-17 March, Arlington, Virginia).

ABSTRACT:Caves at Fort Hood, Texas harbor several endemic invertebrate species of concern which are congeneric with federally endangered species found around Austin and San Antonio, Texas. These invertebrates, including species of spiders, millipedes, and beetles are threatened by the Red Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Solenopsis invicta), which forages within the caves. We present an overview of several projects which begin to characterize the structure of this community, including data on the distribution and abundance of cavernicoles, isotopic (d13C, d15N) studies of the trophic structure of the community, and studies of the foraging range of a key species, the cave cricket Ceuthophilus secretus (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae), which forages outside of caves in the same habitat as S. invicta. Knowledge gained regarding spatial and temporal aspects of community structure, trophic relations, and spatial habitat use by C. secretus facilitate development of management plans at Fort Hood and have obvious applications to management of federally endangered cavernicoles in other karst areas.

Smith, J. E. (presenter), S. J. Taylor, C. W. Whelan, M. L. Denight, and M. M. Stake. 2004. Fire ant impacts on avian species nest predation and energetic costs to the Black-capped Vireo. Brain and Behavior Group (October), Michigan State University.

Whelan, C. J. (presenter), J. E. Smith, S. J. Taylor, M. L. Denight, and M. Stake. 2004. Evaluating impacts of red imported fire ants on an endangered bird species. National Military Fish and Wildlife Association Meeting, (15-19 March, Spokane, Washington). Invited Presentation.

Venarsky, M. P. (presenter), F. Anderson, F. M. Wilhelm, and S. J. Taylor. 2004. Population genetics of the endangered Illinois cave amphipod, Gammarus acherondytes. Midwest Ecology and Evolution Conference (11-13 March, Carondale, Illinois).

Taylor, S. J., M. J. Wetzel (presenter), D. W. Webb, and S. V. Panno. 2003. Caves and springs of Illinois and southeast Missouri: Aquatic biota and groundwater contamination. Poster Presentation, 9th International Symposium on Aquatic Oligochaete Biology (6-10 October 2003, Wageningen, The Netherlands).

Taylor, S. J. (presenter), J. K. Krejca, and M. L. Denight. 2003. The foraging range of a central Texas cave cricket, Ceuthophilus secretus (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae). National Cave and Karst Management Symposium (13-17 October, Gainesville, Florida).

ABSTRACT:We documented the nocturnal foraging range of the cave cricket Ceuthophilus secretus (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae) at a cave in Coryell County, Texas. During 17 nights between 8 May and 10 July, 2003 we marked more than 1000 emerging crickets at the cave entrance with UV-bright paint. Using battery powered ultraviolet lights, we searched the area around the cave logging our search path with a GPS receiver. Over the course of this study, 291 marked crickets were located. Preliminary analyses show that the crickets were found at 38.5 meters from the cave on the average, with distances varying from 2.3 meters up to 105.7 meters. Ninety percent of the crickets were found within 72 meters of the cave entrance. Crickets were active from about 9 pm to at least 3 am.
 
Ceuthophilus secretus is important in central Texas cave communities because it brings significant energy into the cave through its' surface forays. On the surface, the Red Imported Fire Ant (RIFA), Solenopsis invicta, is an important introduced predator. Possible interactions (competition and/or predation) between cave crickets and RIFA could, therefore, have significant impacts on cave communities. Thus, the foraging range of the cricket has significance for land managers who may wish to control RIFA populations around caves that contain federally endangered terrestrial cave invertebrates.

Taylor, S. J. (presenter), F. M. Wilhem, M. P. Venarsky, and G. L. Adams. 2003. Oxygen consumption / body mass relationships of Gammarus acherondytes and G. troglophilus (Amphipoda) in an Illinois cave. National Speleological Society Convention (August 4, Poterville, California).

ABSTRACT:Cave stream faunas typically occur in low densities, with species adapted to low levels of available nutrients. Contamination of cave streams with increased nutrients from surface runoff allows stygophilic species to become more dominant in the stream community, potentially displacing stybobitic species which have lower metabolic rates. In Illinois Caverns, as in several other caves in Illinois' Salem Plateau, Gammarus troglophilus, a stygophilic amphipod, co-occurs with the federally endangered G. acherondytes, a stygobite. It has been suggested that G. troglophilus is displacing or out-competing G. acherondytes as a result of nutrient enrichment. To test the hypothesis that G. troglophilus has a higher metabolic rate than G. acherondytes, we measured the seasonal basal metabolic rates of both species in the laboratory. Slopes of the rate of oxygen consumption versus amphipod body mass differed. The relationship for G. troglophilus was steeper than for G. acherondytes indicating that the larger G. troglophilus have a higher mass-specific respiration rate than G. acherondytes. Gammarus troglophilus may have a further competitive advantage because of their larger adult body size, which may facilitate greater reproductive capacity than for G. acherondytes. Reversing the current trend of habitat degradation will require a concerted effort on the surface to mitigate land use practices responsible for degradation cave streams water quality.

Wilhelm, F. M. (presenter), S. J. Taylor, M. P. Venarsky, and G. L. Adams. 2003. Oxygen consumption of Gammarus acherondytes and G. troglophilus, two cave amphipods from Illinois Caverns. The Crustacean Society Annual Conference (June 1-5, Williamsburg, Virginia).

Taylor, S. J. (presenter), J. K. Krejca, M. L. Denight, and V. Block. 2002. Investigation of Red Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta) impacts on karst invertebrate communities at Fort Hood, Texas. Poster Presentation, Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America (17-20 November 2002, Fort Lauderdale, Florida).

ABSTRACT:Red Imported Fire Ant (RIFA), Solenopsis invicta, predation upon karst invertebrate communities in central Texas has been previously reported in studies by Elliott, Reddell and Cokendolpher. We are conducting a year-long study of six caves to quantify aspects of this phenomenon. The study sites are at Fort Hood (Bell and Coryell counties, Texas), near the northern limit of the Edwards Plateau, where caves harbor a variety of troglobitic macroinvertebrates - including several narrowly endemic taxa. Above ground, we use timed bait censusing to measure RIFA foraging activity on a grid of points centered over cave entrances and conduct mound counts within the study plots. Inside the caves, timed RIFA bait traps are placed along an in-cave transect. Visual censusing in a 0.1 m2 quadrate frame quantifies diversity and abundance of cavernicoles along the in-cave transect. Preliminary results corroborate earlier observations in that RIFA mound density and foraging activity are higher at disturbed, open sites.

Taylor, S. J. (presenter), J. K. Krejca, M. L. Denight, and V. Block. 2002. Preliminary report on investigations of Red Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta) impacts on karst invertebrate communities at Fort Hood, Texas. National Speleological Society Convention (24-28 June, Camden, Maine).

ABSTRACT:Red Imported Fire Ant (RIFA), Solenopsis Invicta, predation upon karst invertebrate communities in central Texas has been reported in studies by Elliott, Reddell and Cokendolpher. We have begun a year-long study of six caves that seeks to quantify aspects of this phenomenon. The study sites are at Fort Hood (Bell and Coryell counties, Texas), near the northern limit of the Edwards Plateau. Caves there harbor a variety of troglobitic macroinvertebrates, including several narrowly endemic taxa. Above ground, we use timed bait censusing to measure RIFA foraging activity on a grid of points centered over cave entrances, and conduct mound counts within the study plots. Inside the caves, timed RIFA bait traps are placed along an in-cave transect. Visual censusing in a 0.1 m2 quadrate frame quantifies diversity and abundance of cavernicoles along the in-cave transect. Preliminary results corroborate earlier observations, in that RIFA mound density and foraging activity are higher at disturbed, open sites. RIFA foraging on the trogloxene Ceuthophilus secretus in and outside of caves suggests that the interactions between these two species could have a negative impact on cave communities. We have observed an active RIFA foraging trail in the dark zone of a cave (2 cm soil temperature 17.0o C [62.6o F]) while epigean 2 cm soil temperatures were too low for surface foraging by RIFA (average 12.8o C [55.0o F]), demonstrating that RIFA can use the cave community as a food source when temperatures near the surface are too low for foraging.

Taylor, S. J. (presenter), M. J. Wetzel, and D. W. Webb. 2001. Freshwater oligochaetes (Annelida) in fine sediments of cave streams and sediment chemical composition. National Speleological Society Convention (23-27 July, Mount Vernon, Kentucky).

ABSTRACT:We report on quantitative collections of aquatic oligochaetes from fine sediments of eight cave streams in Illinois and Missouri, USA. Four of these streams were sampled monthly for one year. Eight annelid genera (Haplotaxis, Dero, Pristina, Pristinella, Limnodrilus, Rhyacodrilus, Tubifex, Varichaetadrilus) were collected. Some of the species identified are associated with more pristine conditions and others with organic enrichment. Measuring slide mounted specimens, we estimate the minimum volume of worms per unit volume of fine sediment in the caves streams. Examination of monthly samples did not reveal any statistically significant seasonal patterns in worm density or diversity. Sediment samples were analyzed for a variety of chemical constituents. We expected these would be positively correlated with the same constituents in water samples, but no such trend was detected for calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium. Metals in sediment sample showed some tendency to co-vary. For example, elevated iron levels sediment samples were typically associated with increased lead and nickel levels in the sediments. Mercury was detected twice as often (6 of 12 monthly samples) in sediment samples from one wild cave that experiences heavy visitation as it was in three less frequented caves (3 of 12 monthly samples each). Lead was present in most sediment samples but only a few water samples, while Atrazine was detected in few sediment samples, but was more common in water samples.

Taylor, S. J., D. W. Webb, M. J. Wetzel (presenter), and S. V. Panno. 2001. Caves and springs of Illinois and southeast Missouri: Aquatic biota and groundwater contamination. Poster Presentation, Special Session: Understanding karst is key to protecting Florida's springs - a Symposium, Florida Academy of Science Meeting, Saint Leo University (8-10 March, Saint Leo, Florida).

Taylor, S. J. (presenter), D. W. Webb, S. V. Panno, and R. N. Lerch. 2000. Microbial contamination of shallow karst aquifers in Illinois and southeastern Missouri. 27th Annual Natural Areas Conference (Session: Conserving Caves and Karst Communities), St. Louis, Missouri, October 16-20, 2000.

ABSTRACT:Spring and cave waters in Illinois and southeastern Missouri karst regions are typically contaminated with high levels of bacteria. Fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus bacteria have been identified in water from many springs and caves in Illinois and southeastern Missouri. Among the taxa commonly encountered are Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus facium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Sinkholes and relatively porous, fractured calcareous bedrock provide a setting where contaminants enter the groundwater with little or no filtration. Sources of water borne fecal bacteria can include native wildlife, livestock, and private septic systems. Use of contaminated groundwater as a drinking water source may pose health risks, as can visiting caves with extremely high fecal coliform counts. Fecal coliform contamination is indicative of possible nutrient enrichment which can adversely affect aquatic cave community structure and, at high levels, may result in reduced availability of dissolved oxygen. An overview of microbial contamination across several karst regions in Illinois and southeastern Missouri is presented, and seasonal fluctuations in microbial contamination and potential sources are discussed.

Taylor, S. J., D. W. Webb, M. J. Wetzel (presenter). 2000. Aquatic Biota and Water Chemistry of Illinois Caves and Springs: Problems and Management. Poster Presentation, 8th International Symposium on Aquatic Oligochaeta (18-22 July, Universidad del País Vasco / Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Bilbao, Spain).

Wetzel, M. J. (presenter), D. W. Webb, and S. J. Taylor. 2000. Diversity and Abundance of the Aquatic Oligochaeta in Illinois (USA) Springs and Caves. 8th International Symposium on Aquatic Oligochaeta (22 July, Universidad del País Vasco / Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Bilbao, Spain).

ABSTRACT:The biodiversity, hydrogeology, and water quality of 75 Illinois springs were studied from February 1991 through January 2000. Oligochaete worms (6 families, 25 genera, 37 species) represented the most diverse and often most abundant group of non-insectan aquatic macroinvertebrates in springs. A similar study, begun in 1998, identified oligochaetes occurring in four cave stream systems in the karst region of southwestern Illinois. Fewer oligochaete taxa (3 families, 8 genera, 13 species) were collected from subterranean cave streams, but still were among the dominant groups of organisms. Spatial differences in the diversity and abundance of aquatic oligochaetes of springs and caves in Illinois are examined in relation to physical and chemical variables of the groundwater. Significant differences in species richness are evident among spring and cave communities. We are currently exploring multivariate approaches to analyzing physico-chemical and biological data collected from spring and cave study sites.

Krejca, J. K. (presenter), D. A. Hendrickson, and S. J. Taylor. 2000. Using Stygobites to Follow Groundwater in Texas and Mexico. National Speleological Society Convention (June 27, Dailey, West Virginia).

ABSTRACT:The limestone that makes up the Edwards Plateau of Central Texas and Northern Mexico is known for complex and little understood subsurface drainage and consequentially complicated water management issues. To understand patterns of aquifer connectedness, standard hydrologic techniques are used, but techniques such as well drilling are very expensive, and dye tracing is difficult due to the desert environment (too little water to push dye through) and the large size of the aquifer (dilution). This study proposes to use intraspecific molecular phylogenies of populations of stygobite taxa as a measure of hydrologic interconnectedness in order to augment data from standard hydrologic techniques. The first stages of this project will be presented, including a description of the hydrogeologic setting, identification of appropriate taxa and localities (including the cave-dwelling Cirolanid isopod Cirolanides texensis), and some population size data on Mexican blindcat, Prietella phreatophila, using mark-recapture techniques. Hypotheses about subterranean connections and the use of phylogenetics to analyze them will be presented.

Taylor, S. J. (presenter), D. W. Webb, and S. V. Panno. 2000. Microbial and water-quality variation in caves within the range of Gammarus acherondytes. Midwest Cave Ecology Meeting (February 11-12, Kirkwood, Missouri).

Krejca, J. K. (presenter), D. A. Hendrickson, and S. J. Taylor. 1999. Using Prietella phreatophila (Ictaluridae) and other cave organisms to follow groundwater in Texas and Mexico. 31st Annual Meeting of the Desert Fishes Council (18 to 21 November, Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, Mexico).

ABSTRACT: The limestone that makes up the Edwards Plateau of Central Texas and Northern Mexico is known for complex and little understood subsurface drainage and consequentially complicated water management issues. The cave conduits of this type of drainage are inhabited by stygobites; organisms restricted to the subterranean aquatic environment. This study proposes to use genetic relatedness of populations of stygobite taxa as a measure of hydrologic interconnectedness in a regional desert aquifer where standard hydrologic techniques are difficult to use. The first stages of this project will be presented, including a description of the hydrogeologic setting of karst, identification of appropriate taxa and localities (including the cave-dwelling Cirolanid isopod Cirolanides texensis), and some population size data on Mexican blindcat, Prietella phreatophila, using mark-recapture techniques. Hypotheses about subterranean connections across the US-Mexico border and the use of phylogenetics to analyze them will be presented.

Taylor, S. J. (presenter), S. V. Panno and D. W. Webb. 1999. Groundwater quality in the caves and karst of Illinois' Salem Plateau. 14th National Cave and Karst Management Symposium. (October 19-22, Chattanooga, Tennessee).

ABSTRACT: Several factors (e.g., row crop agriculture, livestock, private septic systems, and urbanization) have been identified as potential contributors to groundwater contamination in the karst of Illinois' Salem Plateau. We review some of the potential problems and present data from recent and ongoing studies of the groundwater in this area, with an emphasis on four major caves within the range of the federally endangered Illinois Cave Amphipod, Gammarus acherondytes, (Amphipoda: Gammaridae). Information on microbial contamination, basic water chemistry, and agricultural chemical use are presented. Potential impacts of these contaminants on humans and the Illinois Cave Amphipod are discussed.
 
In water samples collected monthly from four caves, spring fecal coliform counts were high (some samples with more than 4800 colony forming units per 100 ml), but dropped during the summer months. Microbial taxa associated with both human and livestock waste were common in groundwater samples. In Stemler Cave, where the Illinois Cave Amphipod has not been found since 1965, dissolved oxygen levels are typically lower than at the other three caves. Agrichemicals have been detected in base level flow groundwater samples mainly during the spring application of agricultural pesticides. Together, these data suggest that several types of human impacts are having a negative impact on groundwater quality in the Salem Plateau.

Toomey, R. S. (presenter), S. J. Taylor, D. Tecic, D. S. Newman, and C. Hespen. 1999. The potential use of data-logging light intensity and light on/off meters in mapping visitor use of wild caves. 14th National Cave and Karst Management Symposium. (October 19-22, Chattanooga, Tennessee).

ABSTRACT: The Illinois Department of Natural Resources and Illinois Nature Preserves Commission manage several caves that contain the Illinois Cave amphipod (Gammarus acherondytes) which was recently added to the Federal Endangered Species list. One of the potential threats to the survival of the amphipod cited by the US Fish and Wildlife Service is visitation.
 
Unfortunately, we have very little real data on the patterns of visitation for these caves. The best data is available for the most visited cave (Illinois Caverns). The main entrance of this cave is owned and managed by IDNR. Current policy allows open visitation by groups of under 25 people with an exploration permit, issued at the cave site. Because of this permitting process, we have a good estimate of the number of people entering the cave. However, we have no information on which portions of the cave are visited or on how many groups visit various areas. Three other IDNR/INPC managed caves have poorer information on the number of visitors, but they are much less visited.
 
For this reason we have proposed using a series of light intensity loggers and light on/off state loggers to determine usage patterns for the caves. We are proposing using approximately 20 StowAway Light Intensity Loggers combined with a few HOBO H6 Light on/off Loggers (both from Onset Computer Corporation) to study patterns of visitor activity in the caves. We have not yet begun this monitoring and are seeking advice and information to help do so us successfully.

Kath, J. A., J. E. Hofmann, and S. J. Taylor (presenter). 1999. The current status of bat monitoring studies in Illinois. National Speleological Society Convention (July 14, Filer, Idaho).

ABSTRACT: Bat monitoring efforts have been conducted regularly in Illinois since the mid-1980's. Of the twelve bat species that occur in the state, nine (including two federally endangered species and two state-endangered species) depend on caves or abandoned mines during at least part of the year. Two Priority II hibernacula for the federally endangered Indiana bat were discovered in Illinois during the 1990's. The Illinois Department of Natural Resources has established a schedule for conducting regular winter censuses at several caves and mines used by bats. There has been an increased focus recently on gating important cave and mine entrances, both on public and private land, and several significant sites also are protected as state nature preserves. In 1985 the Division of Natural Heritage and Illinois Natural History Survey (supported by the Illinois Department of Transportation, Shawnee National Forest, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) began a cooperative program to study the summer distribution of bats throughout the state, with an emphasis on the Indiana bat. Radiotelemetry identified numerous roost trees used by this species, including maternity colonies.

Taylor, S. J. (presenter), D. W. Webb, and S. V. Panno. 1999. Groundwater chemistry and bacterial fauna of four large caves in Illinois' Salem Plateau. National Speleological Society Convention (July 13, Filer, Idaho).

ABSTRACT: As part of a biological evaluation of the federally endangered Illinois Cave Amphipod, Gammarus acherondytes, (Amphipoda: Gammaridae), we are examining groundwater and sediment chemistry and groundwater bacteria in four caves in Illinois' Salem Plateau. Results from the first four months of this study are discussed in light of potential sources of human impact on the amphipod populations (e.g., row crop agriculture, livestock, and urbanization). During high flow periods (February-April), fecal coliform counts were highest in water from Stemler Cave where the amphipod has not been found since 1965, and water from this cave tended to be more turbid than water from the other three caves. To date, agrichemicals have not been detected in water samples or sediments prior to the spring application of agricultural pesticides. High fecal bacterial counts in all four caves, and the abundance of taxa associated with both human and livestock waste, along with heavy sediment loads in Stemler Cave, suggest that several types of human impacts are having a negative impact on groundwater quality.

Taylor, S. J., D. W. Webb, and M. J. Wetzel (presenter). 1999. Aquatic Biota and Water Chemistry of Illinois Caves and Springs: Problems and Management. Poster Presentation, 47th Annual Meeting of the North American Benthological Society (May 25-28, Duluth, Minnesota).

Taylor, S. J., D. W. Webb, and M. J. Wetzel (presenter). 1999. Aquatic Biota and Water Chemistry of Illinois Caves and Springs: Problems and Management. Poster Presentation, Spring meeting of the Florida Association of Benthologists. (April 29-30, Suwannee River Management District, Live Oak, Florida).

Taylor, S. J. (presenter), R. E. DeWalt, and D. R. Lenat. 1999. Comparison of the ability of family, genus and species level biotic indices to distinguish among groups of North Carolina macroinvertebrate collection sites. 47th Annual Meeting of the North American Benthological Society (May 25-28, Duluth, Minnesota), Special Session (26 May): Effects of Family-Level vs. Genus/Species-Level Taxonomy I (invited paper).

ABSTRACT: The relative efficacy of family, genus, and species level indices of biotic integrity in differentiating among groups of sites is examined using benthic macroinvertebrate data collected from more than 1400 stations in montane, piedmont and coastal plain ecoregions of North Carolina between 1985 and 1998. Species level tolerance values previously developed for North Carolina's fauna were used to generate genus and family level tolerance values. Sites were grouped into five water quality categories based on EPT richness and into nine clusters based on a multivariate clustering procedure. The ability of the indices, at differing taxonomic levels, to distinguish among groups of sites was assessed using two-way ANOVA's. The biotic indices at different taxonomic levels showed no differences in their ability to distinguish among group means for the EPT water quality categories, but the ability of these indices to distinguish among the nine groups created by a multivariate clustering procedure decreased with decreasing taxonomic resolution. Our data suggest that when differences among groups of sites are small, a biotic index with a higher degree of taxonomic resolution can more effectively identify group differences.

Taylor, S. J. (presenter), D. W. Webb, M. J. Wetzel. 1998. Aquatic Biota and Water Chemistry of Illinois Caves and Springs: Problems and Management. Poster Presentation, Illinois Water '98 (November 16-17, Urbana, IL).

ABSTRACT: Groundwater in Illinois' karst areas contains a wide array of troglobitic and phreatobitic organisms. Three of these species are endemic to Illinois and six are classified as state endangered; several other species are restricted primarily to cave or spring habitats. The Illinois Cave Amphipod, Gammarus acherondytes, is being considered for listing as a federally endangered species. During several studies (1990-present) of Illinois caves and springs, extensive collections of water chemistry data and aquatic macroinvertebrates were made. Various water samples contained trace amounts of heavy metals, Atrazine, Alachlor, Cyanazine, Metolachlor, or persistent breakdown products of Aldrin and DDT. Elevated levels of nitrate-nitrogen were detected in many water samples. In addition, analyses of amphipod and isopod tissues revealed traces of some of these contaminants. Few samples exceeded the Illinois Pollution Control Board maximum contaminant levels or U.S. EPA maximum allowable contaminant levels for drinking water. However, the widespread occurrence of these contaminants and the potential for synergistic effects are reasons for concern. Furthermore, the potential for increased concentrations of contaminants during flood pulses is enhanced by the conduit flow and poor filtration of surface runoff associated with these karst systems. Increased bacterial contaminants of karst aquifers in the past ten years has also heightened our concerns about water quality in this environment. In recent years the Salem Plateau of southwestern Illinois, home to the endemic and state endangered Illinois Cave Amphipod, has experienced a marked increase in residential development. Our current research examines spatial and temporal variations in water and sediment chemistry and microbial levels in the habitat of the Illinois Cave Amphipod. Continuous and monthly monitoring of water chemistry parameters in four caves will be used to detect and characterize flood pulses and estimate contaminant loading. Results from this research will be used to develop resource management and recovery strategies for the Illinois Cave Amphipod, and provide additional impetus to improve groundwater quality in the Salem Plateau.

Taylor, S. J. (presenter), R. E. DeWalt, and D. R. Lenat. 1998. Comparison of family, genus and species level biotic indices across North Carolina ecoregions. 1998 Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America (November 8-12, Las Vegas, Nevada), Formal Conference: Aquatic Insects: Importance of Species-Level Data in Biomonitoring and Management of Aquatic Systems (invited paper).

ABSTRACT: The relative efficacy of family, genus, and species level indices of biotic integrity in differentiating high versus low quality sites is examined using benthic macroinvertebrate data collected from multiple sites in montane, piedmont and coastal plain ecoregions in North Carolina. Species level tolerance values previously developed for North Carolina's fauna will be used to distinguish high and low quality sites across ecoregions. The ability to distinguish high and low quality sites using previously published family level tolerance values will be assessed.

Taylor, S. J. (presenter), D. W. Webb, and J. Bade. 1998. The Illinois Cave Amphipod, Gammarus acherondytes, status and concerns. National Speleological Society Convention (August 4, Sewanee, Tennessee).

ABSTRACT: Gammarus acherondytes Hubricht and Makin is a rare troglobite endemic to subterranean streams in Illinois' Salem Plateau. It previously was recorded from five caves in Monroe and St. Clair counties, Illinois.
 
An examination of 164 Illinois caves (1986-1995) added one new record, a single specimen from Madonnaville Cave collected in 1986. These recent surveys documented a large population of G. acherondytes in Illinois Caverns, a moderate population in Fogelpole Cave, and a small population in Kreuger-Dry Run Cave. Pautler Cave, a previously known locality, has been bulldozed shut by the landowner. Gammarus acherondytes has not been collected in Stemler Cave since 1965, and none were collected in Madonnaville Cave in 1995.
 
Groundwater of this karst area has deteriorated in quality over the last 10 years. This is correlated with increased rural development, use of aeration systems in private septic treatment, and agricultural chemical Through the collaborative efforts of a variety of organizations, a multifaceted approach to karst problems and management in this area provides some hope that G. achrondytes may eventually receive protection sufficient to allow humans and the amphipod to coexist. Current efforts focus on a variety of issues including: 1) educational programs, 2) dye tracing, 3) changes in local karst regulations, 4) formation of the Mississippi Karst Resource Planning Committee and the Sinkhole Plain Ecosystem Partnership, 5) well monitoring, 6) geological investigations, 7) establishment of nature preserves and other protected lands, 8) proposed listing of this amphipod as federally endangered, and 9) further biospeleological studies.

Toomey, R., and S. J. Taylor. 1998. Cave species common to Illinois Caverns. Advanced Project Wet-N-Wild Workshop, Illinois Caverns State Natural Area (June 24, Waterloo, Illinois). [not a professional presentation]

Webb, D. W., S. J. Taylor (presenter), and J. K. Krejca. 1997. Illinois Biospeleology. Presented at the National Speleological Society Convention, Biospeleology Section (May 26, Sullivan, Missouri).

ABSTRACT: The results of a two year biological inventory of Illinois caves are being compiled. Specific identifications of aquatic and terrestrial troglophiles and troglobites are overlaid with microhabitat and water quality data. Special attention is given to the state endemic troglobitic amphipod, Gammarus acherondytes, that is up for consideration as a federally listed species. Threats to Illinois cave fauna are addressed along with management considerations for public and privately owned caves.

Taylor, S. J. (presenter), J. K. Krejca, D. W. Webb, and J. E. Gardner. 1994. A biological inventory and water quality analysis of Illinois caves and other subterranean environments. Presented at the Missouri Academy of Science annual meeting cosponsered by the Missouri Speleological Survey. Cape Girardeau, MO. April 29-30.

ABSTRACT: Throughout our two year biological inventory approximately 100 of the over 390 known caves in Illinois were examined. This project expands on earlier studies, providing valuable baseline data on Illinois cave fauna. In addition, a variety of water quality parameters are being measured, with emphasis on pesticides and fertilizers. Creating a detailed cave database for the state is another important product of this study.
 
Specific identification of many invvertebrates awaits determination by taxonomic specialists. Thus far the water quality analysis has not revealed any caves or springs with contaminant concentrations which exceed state or federal maximum contaminant levels. We have detected the presence of the persistent breakdown products of DDT and Aldrin in both water samples and aquatic cavernicolous invertebrate tissues.
 
Because of the increasing human impact on the karst regions of the state the main goal of this project is to serve as a management tool. The inventory will be useful for future monitoring of Illinois' cave life and karst groundwater, and will aid in understanding human impacts on karst areas. Supported by ILENR/1-5-39610.

Taylor, S. J., J. K. Krejca, D. W. Webb, J. E. Gardner. 1993. Poster session entitled: Caves and Bats: fragile resources of the Cache River basin. Presented at the Cache River Workshop, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.

Taylor, S. J. (presenter), J, K. Krejca, and D. W. Webb. 1993. Biological resources of Illinois' caves and other subterranean environments. Presented at the National Speleological Society Convention, Biospeleology Section (August 2-6, Pendleton, OR).

Taylor, S. J., and J. K. Krejca. 1993. The fauna of Illinois caves. Mississippi Karst Tour, Waterloo, Illinois, April 1993.

Krejca, J. K., and S. J. Taylor. Illinois Caves and Cave Life. Presented 4 April, 1992 at Staerkel Planetarium, Parkland College, Champaign, Il, as part of the World of Science Lecture Series. [not a professional presentation]

Keffer, S. L., S. J. Taylor (presenter), and J. E. McPherson. 1991. Laboratory rearing and description of immature stages of Curicta howardi Montandon (Heteroptera: Nepidae). Paper presented by SJT at annual meeting of the North Central Branch of the Entomological Society of America, March 19, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Taylor, S. J. 1985. Notes on the biology and ecology of Aradidae. Informal conference on the Ecology of the Heteroptera, annual meeting of the Entomological Society of America, Hollywood, Florida.

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INVITED SEMINARS/GUEST LECTURES:

Taylor, S.J. 2011. Biology & Management of Texas Cave Invertebrates. The Program in Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation Biology. School of Integrative Biology, University of Illinois (21 September 2011, Champaign, Illinois).

Taylor, S. J. 2010. Cave Biology: Conservation & Management. Seminar, Illinois Natural History Survey (7 September 2010, Champaign, Illinois).

ABSTRACT: Cave environments are typically characterized by high and fairly constant humidity, stable temperature, the absence of light, low energy, and some level of isolation. Under these conditions a variety of highly modified and often isolated species have arisen, and these species are affected by changes in above-ground ecosystems.
 
Declining natural habitats in central Texas have resulted in the listing of more than a dozen terrestrial cave invertebrates as Endangered by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. This seminar will focus on a variety of studies which inform the management and conservation of central Texas terrestrial cave invertebrates. Examples of similar studies in other settings will be briefly reviewed.
Flier (217 kb).

Taylor, S. J. 2006. Invertebrates in Karst Resource Management. Invited Seminar, Illinois Natural History Survey (28 November, Champaign, Illinois).

Flier (428 kb).

Taylor, S. J. 2006. Cave Conservation in Illinois. Invited Seminar, Biology Department, Southwestern Illinois College (17 February, Belleville, Illinois).

Taylor, S. J. 2005. Cave Crickets and Cave Communities in Central Texas. Invited seminar, Estación de Biologia Tropical "Los Tuxtlas", Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) (11 August, San Andrés Tuxtla, Veracruz, Mexico).

Taylor, S. J. 2005. Cave Crickets and Cave Communities in Central Texas. Invited seminar, Department of Biological Sciences, Texas Tech University (6 April, Lubbock, Texas).

ABSTRACT: Caves at Fort Hood, Texas harbor several endemic invertebrate species of concern which are congeneric with federally endangered species found around Austin and San Antonio, Texas. These invertebrates, including species of spiders, millipedes, and beetles are threatened by the Red Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Solenopsis invicta), which forages within the caves. An overview of several which begin to characterize the structure of this community is presented. These studies include data on the distribution and abundance of cavernicoles within caves, isotopic (d13C, d15N) studies of the trophic structure of the community, studies of the foraging range of a key species, the cave cricket Ceuthophilus secretus (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae), which forages outside of caves in the same habitat as S. invicta, and preliminary data from an ongoing study of Ceuthophilus phylogeography. Knowledge gained regarding spatial and temporal aspects of community structure, trophic relations, and spatial habitat use by C. secretus facilitate development of management plans at Fort Hood and have obvious applications to management of federally endangered cavernicoles in other karst areas.

Taylor, S. J. 2004. Cave Crickets and Cave Communities in Central Texas. Invited seminar, Biology Department, University of Arkansas (11 November, Fayetteville, Arkansas).

Taylor, S. J. 2003. Cave Invertebrates: Biology, Conservation, and Management. Invited seminar, Department of Entomology, University of Illinois (3 February, Urbana, Illinois).

Taylor, S. J. 2002. Cave Invertebrates: Biology, Conservation, and Management. Invited seminar, Department of Entomology, Iowa State University (16 September, Ames, Iowa).

Taylor, S. J. 2001. Cave biology and human impacts on karst groundwater communities. Invited seminar, Department of Entomology, Clemson University (9 April, Clemson, South Carolina).

Taylor, S. J. 2001. Caves and cave biology. Guest lecture in 'Introduction to Cave Science' class, Zahniser Institute for Environmental Studies, Greenville College, (10 January, Greenville, Illinois).

Taylor, S. J. 2000. Caves, Critters, and Contamination. Invited seminar, Zoology Department, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (March 9, Carbondale, Illinois).

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REPORTS:

Taylor, S.J., M.J. Wetzel, C.A. Taylor, J.S. Tiemann, & K.S. Cummings. 2012. A Limited Assessment of Aquatic Resources Associated with the Bloomington East Side Highway – Addendum B Project Area, McLean County, Illinois. INHS/IDOT Statewide Biological Survey & Assessment Program Report 2012(9). 6 p.

Taylor, S.J. 2012. Preliminary assessment of the potential for habitat use by adults of the Hine’s emerald dragonfly, Somatochlora hineana (Odonata: Cordulidae), in and adjacent to the Mill Creek x Illinois Highway 83 project area (LRC-2012-76 IL-83 over Mill Creek), in Cook County, Illinois. INHS Technical Report 2012(16):1-34.

Taylor, S.J., M.E. Slay, J. Jacoby, G.B. Hoese, J.K. Krejca, C.M. Slay & J.E. Bond. 2011. 2011 Belize Biospeleology Expedition Report. Subterranean Ecology Institute, Inc. (Champaign, Illinois) & Illinois Natural History Survey (Champaign, Illinois). INHS Technical Report 2011(43): 1-51.

SUMMARY: We report on preliminary findings from the first biospeleological expedition undertaken between 6 and 19 April 2011 in caves of the Toledo District, southern Belize. Also included is a review of the present state of knowledge of subterranean invertebrates in Belize, with no prior data being available for the Toledo District.
 
During the April 2011 expedition, we sampled more than 1,150 invertebrates, representing more than 80 unique taxa, recorded from 7 caves in the Toledo District of Belize. This material includes a number of species already determined to be new to science, including various arachnids, crustaceans, and insects.
 
The findings of this study form the beginnings of a foundation for future work, which can help inform decision-making regarding cave resources. Caves in Belize are an important socioeconomic resource – they support ecotourism, harbor unique archeological resources. In serving as conduits for water, organic materials, and contaminants, these caves also play important roles within the landscape. The data from the present study, and future biospeleological work will provide land managers and agency personnel with better knowledge of important cave resources in Belize.
View this report as a pdf file (11 MB).

Mark J. Wetzel, Steven J. Taylor, Christopher A. Taylor, Jeremy S. Tiemann, and Kevin S. Cummings. 2011. A limited assessment of aquatic resources (fishes, unionid mussels, other aquatic macroinvertebrates, and water quality) associated with streams in the IDOT Bloomington East Side Highway project area, McLean County, Illinois. INHS Technical Report 2011 (42). 71 p.

Taylor, S.J., R. Weck, M.R. Douglas, J. Tiemann & C.A. Phillips. 2011. Baseline monitoring and molecular characterization of the state endangered Enigmatic Cavesnail, Fontigens antrocetes (Hubrict 1940). INHS Technical Report 2011 (32). 19 p.

View this report as a pdf file (8.4 MB).

Taylor, S.J., A.C. Yannarell and A.D. Yanahan. 2011. Evaluation of the interaction between the plant hormone Abscisic acid (ABA) and seedling competition between invasive Cheatgrass and native Squirreltail. Final report to U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC-CERL). 29 p. (3 July 2011).

Wetzel, M.J., S.J. Taylor, C.A. Taylor, K.S. Cummings, and J.S. Tiemann. 2010. A limited assessment of aquatic resources(fishes, freshwater mussels, other aquatic macroinvertebrates, and water quality) associated with the Kaskaskia River in the IDOT U.S. Route 51 (2010) Study Area, Fayette County, Illinois. Report prepared for the Illinois Department of Transportation, Bureau of Design and Environment, 2300 South Dirksen Parkway, Springfield, Illinois 62764. INHS Technical Report 2010 (39). 25 p. (30 September 2010).

Wetzel, M.J., S.J. Taylor, C.A. Taylor, and J.S. Tiemann. 2010. A Limited Assessment of Aquatic Resources (Fishes, Freshwater Mussels, and other Aquatic Macroinvertebrates) Associated with Streams in the IDOT Illinois Route 22 / FAP 337 (2010) Addendum B Project Corridor, Lake County, Illinois. Final report prepared for the Illinois Department of Transportation, Bureau of Design and Environment, 2300 South Dirksen Parkway, Springfield, Illinois 62764. INHS Technical Report 2010 (34). 23 p. (30 August 2010).

Wetzel, M.J., S.J. Taylor, and C.A. Taylor. 2010. A limited assessment of aquatic resources (fishes, aquatic macroinvertebrates and freshwater mussels) associated with streams in the IDOT Elgin-O’Hare Expressway 2010 Addenda A & B Project Corridors, DuPage County, Illinois. Report prepared for the Illinois Department of Transportation, Bureau of Design and Environment, 2300 South Dirksen Parkway, Springfield, Illinois 62764. INHS Technical Report 2010 (25). 28 p. (3 August 2010).

Moss, P. and S.J. Taylor. 2010. Fauna of Camp Vandeventer karst features: a literature review. Illinois Speleological Survey. Report for the Boy Scouts of America, Kaskaskia District, Lewis and Clark Council. 9 pp.

Soto-Adames, F. N. & S. J. Taylor. 2010. Status assessment survey for springtails (Collembola) in Illinois caves: the Salem Plateau. INHS Technical Report 2010(13): 1-76.

View this report as a pdf file (4636 Kb).

Yannarell, A. C., A. Hagar, Y.-r. Chang, L. Gonzini and S. J. Taylor. 2009. Lespedeza cuneata (Fabaceae) invasion dynamics. INHS Technical Report 2009(41): 1-18.

Wetzel, M. J., S. J. Taylor and C. A. Taylor. 2009. A limited assessment of aquatic resources (fishes, aquatic macroinvertebrates other than unionid mussels, and water quality) associated with five streams in the IDOT Elgin-O'Hare Expressway project corridor, Cook and DuPage counties, Illinois - 2009. INHS Technical Report 2009(40): 1-39.

Wetzel, M. J. and S. J. Taylor. 2009. A limited assessment of the aquatic macroinvertebrate and water quality resources associated with an unnamed tributary of Indian Creek at the Illinois Route 22 (IDOT FAP 337) bridge, Lake County, Illinois - 2009. INHS Technical Report 2009(29): 1-18.

Panno, S. V., D. E. Luman, T. H. Larson and S. J. Taylor. 2009. Identification and characterization of karst terrane in Illinois' unglaciated region: Results of LiDAR imagery and ground penetrating radar in Jo Daviess County, northwestern Illinois. Illinois State Geological Survey, unpublished report, 60 p.

View this report

Taylor, S. J., J. K. Krejca, and M. E. Slay. 2008. Cave Biota of Great Basin National Park, White Pine County, Nevada. Illinois Natural History Survey, Technical Report 2008(25):1-398.

View this report as a pdf file (27.8 Mb).

Taylor, S. J., J. K. Krejca, and K. Hackley. 2007. Examining possible foraging differences in urban and rural cave cricket populations: carbon and nitrogren isotope ratios (δ13C, δ15N) as indicators of trophic level. Illinois Natural History Survey Technical Report 2007(59): 1-97.

View this report as a pdf file (33924 Kb).

Taylor, S. J., J. D. Weckstein, D. M. Takiya, J. K. Krejca, J. D. Murdoch, G. Veni, K. P. Johnson, and J. R. Reddell. 2007. Phylogeography of cave crickets (Ceuthophilus spp.) in central Texas: A keystone taxon for the conservation and management of federally listed endangered cave arthropods. Illinois Natural History Survey Technical Report 2007(58): 1-45.

View this report as a pdf file (3089 Kb).

Ahler, S. R., S. J. Taylor, M. L. Colburn, M. E. Slay, and W. Handel. 2007. Cultural and biological inventory of selected caves at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. Report submitted to US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (Contract No. DACA42-00-D-009, Delivery Order 006). Illinois State Museum Society, Landscape History Program, Technical Report 2007-1629-7. xx + 560 pages + 8 appendices, in 2 volumes.

*classified*

Taylor, S. J., C. A. Phillips and J.K. Krejca. 2007. Prey of cave and surface populations of Plethodon albagula (Plethodontidae) at Fort Hood, Texas. Illinois Natural History Survey Technical Report 2007(48):1-44.

*classified*

Levin, G. A. and S. J. Taylor. 2007. Database of U.S. Army Installation Floristic Inventories. Illinois Natural History Survey Technical Report 2007(47):1-10 + database.

*classified*

Taylor, S. J., C. A. Phillips, J. K. Krejca and M. J. Dreslik. 2006. Population estimates and age class structure of the salamander Plethodon albagula (Plethodontidae) at Fort Hood, Texas. Illinois Natural History Survey Technical Report 2006(1):1-52.

*unclassified*

Taylor, S. J., M. E. Slay, and W. C. Handel. 2006. Cave fauna survey and monitoring at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. Illinois Natural History Center for Biodiversity Technical Report 2006(7). xi + 245 pages.

*unclassified*
View this report as a pdf file (11.3 Mb).

Taylor, S. J. and J. K. Krjeca. 2006. A biological assessment of caves in Lava Beds National Monument. Illinois Natural History Survey, Center for Biodiversity Technical Report 2006(6):1-107.

Feist, M. (ed.), S.B. Amundsen, D. Busemeyer, K.S. Cummings, C. Grigg, W. Handel, K. Johnson, D. Keene, R. Larimore, P.B. Marcum, K. Moss, J.E. Petzing, C.A. Phillips, A.E. Plocher, J. Sandberger, J.B. Taft, C.A. Taylor, S.J. Taylor, J.S. Tiemann, M.J. Wetzel, L.B. Cordle, F.R. Hutto. 2006. An assessment of biological resources associated with the 2005 Illinois 336 project corridor, Peoria, Fulton, and McDonough counties, Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Center for Wildlife and Plant Ecology Technical Report 2006(2). XIII + 50 pp. + appendices, maps, and figures.

Edwards, A.E. (ed.), S. Hill, J.B. Taft, D. Busemeyer, Wiesbrook, Zercher, A.E. Plocher, J.E. Hoffman, Mengelkoch, J.E. Petzing, D.A. Enstrom, C.A. Phillips, S.J. Taylor, C.A. Taylor, K.S. Cummings, S.B. Amundsen, J.S. Tiemann, K. Moss, L.B. Cordle, F.R. Hutto. 2006. An assessment of the biological resources associated with the Illinois Prairie Parkway project corridor, Grundy, Kane and Kendall counties, Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Center for Wildlife and Plant Ecology Technical Report 2006 (1). xxi + 461 pp. + appendices + figures.

Taylor, S. J., C. A. Phillips, and J. K. Krejca. 2005. Population estimates and age class structure of the salamander Plethodon albagula (Plethodontidae) at Fort Hood, Texas. Illinois Natural History Survey, Center for Biodiversity Technical Report 2005(19):1-43.

*unclassified*

Wetzel, M.J., J.E. Hofmann (Co-Editors), A.E. Edwards, J.B. Taft, B.W. Wilm, A.E. Plocher, J.E. Petzing, D.A. Enstrom, C.A. Phillips, S.J. Taylor, C.A. Taylor, K.S. Cummings, S.B. Amundsen, J.S. Tiemann, K. Moss, L.B. Cordle, and F.R. Hutto. 2005. An assessment of the biological resources associated with the extended Illinois Route 29 project corridor, Bureau, Marshall, Peoria, and Putnam Counties, Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Center for Biodiversity Technical Report 2005 (9). xvi + 72 pp. + appendices + figures.

Taylor, Steven J. Andrew V. Suarez, Christopher H. Dietrich, Karlene Ramsdell and S. Casey Funderburk. 2005. Evaluation and monitoring of terrestrial and aquatic insect biodiversity in forested and cleared watersheds at Camp Atterbury, Indiana. Illinois Natural History Survey, Center for Biodiversity Technical Report 2005(1):1-103.

*unclassified*

Ahler, S. R., S. J. Taylor, M. E. Slay, and W. C. Handel. September 2004. Cultural and biological inventory and monitoring protocol for thirteen selected caves at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. Illinois State Museum Society, Landscape History Program, Technical Report 2004-1562-8. viii + 161 pages, 13 maps, 6 appendicies.

*unclassified* {Note: biology portion of above report repeats the data presented in report by Taylor, Slay and Handel (2003)}

Taylor, S. J. K. Hackley, J. K. Krejca, M. J. Dreslik, S. E. Greenberg, and E. L. Raboin. 2004. Examining the Role of Cave Crickets (Rhaphidophoridae) in Central Texas Cave Ecosystems Isotope Ratios (δ13C, δ15N) and Radio Tracking. Illinois Natural History Survey, Center for Biodiversity Technical Report 2004(9)1-128.

View this report as a pdf file (13.4 Mb).

Taylor, S. J., and C. A. Phillips. July 2003. A survey of Plethodon sp. (Plethodontidae) salamander populations in caves and sinkholes at Fort Hood, Texas. US Army Corps of Engineeers, Engineer Research and Development Center, Champaign, IL. ERDC/CERL CR-03-2. 32 pp.

*unclassified* {Note: this report repeats the data from Taylor and Phillips (2002) report.}
View this report as a pdf file (829 kb).

Taylor, S. J., J. K. Krejca, J. E. Smith, V. R. Block, and F. Hutto. 2003. Investigation of the potential for Red Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta) impacts on rare karst invertebrates at Fort Hood, Texas: a field study. Illinos Natural History Survey, Center for Biodiversity Technical Report 2003(28):1-153.

*unclassified*

Krejca, J. K. and S. J. Taylor. 2003. A biological inventory of eight caves in Great Basin National Park. Illinos Natural History Survey, Center for Biodiversity Technical Report 2003(27):1-72.

Taylor, S. J., P. S. Sprouse, and F. Hutto. 2003. A survey of Red Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta) distribution and abundance at Fort Hood, Texas. Illinos Natural History Survey, Center for Biodiversity Technical Report 2003(26):1-42.

*unclassified*

Taylor, S. J., M. E. Slay, and W. C. Handel. 2003. A biological survey and monitoring protocol for thirteen caves at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. Illinos Natural History Survey, Center for Biodiversity Technical Report 2003(22):1-134.

*unclassified*

Taylor, S. J., F. M. Wilhelm, G. L. Adams and M. P. Venarsky. 2003. Establishing baseline data on seasonal physiological requirements for Gammarus acherondytes and Gammarus troglophilus in relation to microbial oxygen demand. Illinois Natural History Survey, Center For Biodiversity Technical Report 2003(20):1-50.

View this report as a pdf file (1.8 Mb).

Wetzel, M.J., J.E. Hofmann (co-editors), A.E. Edwards, J.A. Koontz, J.B. Taft, B.W. Wilm, A.E. Plocher, J.E. Petzing, D.A. Enstrom, C.A. Phillips, S.J. Taylor, C.A. Taylor, K.S. Cummings, S.B. Amundsen, J.S. Tiemann, R.E. DeWalt, and D.A. Soluk; mapping by K.J. Hunter, L.B. Suloway, and F.R. Hutto. 2003. An Assessment of the Biological Resources Associated with the Illinois Route 29 Project corridor, Bureau, Marshall, Peoria, and Putnam Counties, Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Center for Biodiversity Technical Report 2003 (4). Prepared For Illinois Department of Transportation Bureau of Design and Environment, 2300 South Dirksen Parkway, Springfield, IL 62764. 28 March 2003. 98 pages + appendices.

Smith, J. E., S. J. Taylor and C. W. Whelan. 2002. Red Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta) depredation of Black-capped Vireo (Vireo atricapillus) nests at Fort Hood, Texas. Illinois Natural History Survey, Center For Biodiversity Technical Report 2002(24):1-59 + CD.

*unclassified*

Taylor, S. J. and C. A. Phillips. 2002. A survey of Plethodon sp. (Plethodontidae) salamander populations in caves and sinkholes at Fort Hood, Texas. Illinois Natural History Survey, Center For Biodiversity Technical Report 2002(12):1-23 + CD.

*unclassified*

Taylor, S. J. 2001. Investigation of the potential for Red Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta) impacts on rare karst invertebrates at Fort Hood, Texas: Literature survey and study design. Illinois Natural History Survey, Center For Biodiversity Technical Report 2001(12):1-49.

*unclassified*

Taylor, S. J., M. J. Wetzel, R. E. DeWalt, and C. A. Taylor. 2001. An Assessment of the Aquatic Resources of Black Partridge Creek Basin, Cook and DuPage Counties, Illinois: Surveys for Fishes and Aquatic Macroinvertebrates. IDOT FAP 340 - Project No. P-91-315-86. Illinois Natural History Survey, Center for Biodiversity, Technical Report 2001(2):1-43.

Taylor, S. J. and D. W. Webb. 2000. Subterranean Amphipoda (Crustacea) of Illinois' Salem Plateau: spatial and temporal components of microdistribution. Illinois Natural History Survey, Center for Biodiversity, Technical Report 2000(27):1-62.

SUMMARY: This report presents results of a quantitative field study of amphipods and other invertebrates found in four cave streams in Illinois' Salem Plateau.
 
We conducted field experiments in Illinois Caverns which indicated that Gammarus troglophilus Hubricht and Mackin (Amphipoda: Gammaridae) and Gammarus acherondytes Hubricht and Mackin, the federally endangered Illinois Cave Amphipod, both preferred larger (12.7 to <50.8 mm) gravels over smaller (2.36 to <12.7 mm) gravels in individual trials, and this preference did not vary significantly with size of the amphipods.
 
We also investigated microhabitat usage of the amphipods as determined by substrate size distributions and densities of other invertebrates in monthly sampling during a year-long study. Stream gravel size distributions varied among the four cave study sites, as did the composition and abundance of the community of crustaceans and other invertebrates. Variations in abundance and size of the amphipods Crangonyx forbesi (Hubricht and Mackin) (Amphipoda: Crangonyctidae), G. acherondytes and G. troglophilus were explained in part by time of year, indicating that the reproductive activity of these amphipods is influenced by seasonal factors. Gravel substrate characteristics and the densities of other taxa, especially the troglophilic isopod Caecidotea brevicauda (Forbes) (Asellidae), also were important in explaining the distribution of the amphipods.
 
Gammarus acherondytes, G. troglophilus, and C. forbesi species pairs often co-occurred in samples, suggesting commensal and/or predator-prey relationships, or concentration of animals around limited resources (e.g., food, shelter).
 
Various characteristics of the four study caves were correlated with the relative success of the Illinois Cave Amphipod, but causal relationships could not be demonstrated from the available data. Organic enrichment, pH, and dissolved oxygen were among the factors implicated as being potentially important in explaining the relative abundance of G. acherondytes at the four study sites.
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Taylor, S. J. and M. J. Wetzel. 2000. Investigation of the Potential for the Occurrence of the Illinois Cave Amphipod, Gammarus acherondytes (Amphipoda: Gammaridae) in the Maeystown area, Monroe County, Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey, Center for Biodiversity, Technical Report 2000(24):1-14.

Taylor, S. J., D. W. Webb and S. V. Panno. 2000. Spatial and temporal analyses of the bacterial fauna and water, sediment, and amphipod tissue chemistry within the range of Gammarus acherondytes. Illinois Natural History Survey, Center for Biodiversity, Technical Report 2000(18):1-115.

SUMMARY: This report summarizes data collected in a 17 month study of four caves in southwestern Illinois which either support (Illinois Caverns, Krueger-Dry Run Cave, Fogelpole Cave) or formerly supported (Stemler Cave) populations of the federally endangered Illinois Cave Amphipod (Gammarus acherondytes). Supplemental data, primarily from karst groundwater samples, is presented for caves, springs, and selected other sites from across Illinois and southeastern Missouri to provide context for the data from the four caves.
 
Stemler Cave water was markedly less alkaline than water from the other three caves, and, based on other studies, pH may be an important factor in amphipod biology. Dissolved oxygen, also important in amphipod biology, appeared to be reduced in Stemler Cave.
 
Water in the four caves exhibited high levels of fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus bacteria, indicative of fecal contamination. Specific bacterial species known to be associated with fecal contamination were identified in the water samples. The source of this contamination was not determined.
 
Agrichemicals occurred at moderate to low levels in water samples, especially in the late spring, but were infrequently detected in sediment samples.
 
Analysis of tissues of amphipods and isopods collected from the four caves demonstrated bioaccumulation of Pendemethalin and Dieldrin, and low levels of lead were detected in most tissue samples.
 
Surveys of karst groundwater across Illinois and southeastern Missouri revealed that fecal contamination is a more serious problem in southwestern Illinois, southeastern Missouri, and the Shawnee Hills than it is elsewhere. These areas exhibited elevated fecal bacterial counts that regularly exceeded various regulatory limits. Such elevated levels of fecal-associated bacteria pose serious threats to the well being of natural communities of karst groundwater organisms and also pose a potentially serious health threat to humans.
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Taylor, S. J. 1999. Inventory of the water striders of the lower Illinois River basin. Illinois Natural History Survey, Center for Biodiversity, Technical Report 1999(25):1-27.

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Walaszek, S. and S. J. Taylor. 1999. Fort Leonard Wood cave resources survey and impact assessment. Conservation Assistance Program, US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, Champaign, Illinois. CAP Tracking Number 0898007. September 1999. 19 pages.

Webb, D. W., S. J. Taylor, and J. K. Krejca. 1994. The Biological Resources of Illinois' Caves and Other Subterranean Environments. Illinois Natural History Survey, Center for Biodiversity, Technical Report 1993(8):1-168 pages.

SUMMARY: This report presents the results of a two year study examining the biota and groundwater of Illinois caves. Ninety eight caves, mines, pits, and springs were examined in 13 counties throughout four karst regions of Illinois. Extensive faunal inventories were conducted at each site, water samples were collected from 55 sites and aquatic cave invertebrates from 5 sites where chemically analyzed.
 
Over 5,900 invertebrate specimens, representing 4 phyla, 11 classes, and at least 32 orders, have been sorted and entered into a database. The specimens are now being identified by cooperating systematists. The state endangered amphipod Crangonyx anomalus was collected at a second spring in Pope County, Illinois. The state endangered species Gammarus acherondytes was collected in Fogelpole Cave in 1992 but was not collected in 1993 in any of the five caves for which it had been previously reported. An additional cave locality for this species was identified from Oliver and Graham material (Illinois State Museum).
 
Vertebrate specimens in caves were dominated by salamanders and bats. Seven species of salamanders were collected, although no state or federally threatened or endangered species were observed. Seven species of bats were observed in Illinois caves. The federally endangered species Myotis grisesscens and M. sodalis were observed in one and six caves, respectively. The state endangered Myotis austroriparius was observed in two caves.
 
Nitrates were detected in the 31 water samples tested and one spring and one cave stream in Monroe County exceeded the Illinois Pollution Control Board's Maximum Contamination Level of 10 mg/L.
 
Mercury levels from 9-658 parts per billion were detected in specimens of amphipods and isopods from one spring and four cave streams although mercury was not detected in any of the water samples tested.
 
Pesticides (o,p-DDE, p,p'-DDE, and Dieldrin) were detected in each of the three samples of isopods and amphipods as well as in several water samples. No Atrazine was detected in any water samples.
 
Preliminary results of chemical analyses show some interesting trends, but no cases of severe chemical contamination. Correlations between water quality and the cave biota await the specific identifications of organisms collected.
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Taylor, S. J. 1991. Species list, distribution and keys to the Gerromorpha (Insecta: Heteroptera) of Illinois. Illinois Department of Conservation, Nongame Checkoff Fund. August 1991. 33 pages.

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GRANTS:

2011. Southern Illinois cave ecosystems: bioinventories, microbial communities & management plans. Taylor, S.J. (Principal Investigator), A.C. Yannarell, F. N. Soto-Adames and Sam W. Heads. USDA Forest Service, $20,000 for 4.5 years (1 Dec 2011 – 31 May 2016).

2011. White Nose Syndrome & Illinois Bat Hibernacula. Taylor, S.J. (Principal Investigator), A.N. Miller, A.C. Yannarell, J.F. Merritt, N. Mateus-Pinilla and E.J. Heske. Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Section 6 Endangered & Threatened Species Program, $114,706 for 3.9 years (1 September 2011 - 31 July 2015).

2011. White Nose Syndrome & Illinois Bat Populations: Biology & Monitoring. Taylor, S.J. (Principal Investigator), A.C. Yannarell, A.N. Miller, E. J. Heske, N. Mateus-Pinilla and J.F. Merritt. Illinois Department of Natural Resources, State Wildlife Grant Program, $210,000 for 3 years (1 August 2011 - 31 July 2014).

2011. Braidwood Dunes and Savanna: Invertebrate Inventory. Taylor, S.J. (Principal Investigator), J.N. Zahniser, S.W. Heads, F.N. Soto-Adames, J.R. Wiker and A.D. Yanahan. Forest Preserve District of Will County, $18,000 for 1.75 years (1 June 2011 - 1 March 2013).

2011. Ground Beetle assemblages on Illinois' algific talus slopes: a rare habitat threatened by climate change. Taylor, S.J. (Principal Investigator) and A.D. Yanahan. Illinois Department of Natural Resources - Wildlife Preservation Fund, $1,958 for 1 year (1 May 2011 - 30 April 2012).

2011. A one-year project to update historic (> 10 yrs old) endangered and threatened invertebrate Element Occurrence Record information for Illinois Department of Natural Resources Administrative Region 5. Tiemann, J.S. (Principal Investigator), S.J. Taylor, and C.A. Taylor. Illinois Department of Natural Resources, $9,998 for 1.33 years (1 May 2011 - 30 September 2012).

2011. Lespedeza cuneata (Fabaceae) Invasion Dynamics: Legacy feedback effects and microbial communities. Taylor, S. J. (Principal Investigator) and A. C. Yannarell. U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC-CERL), $91,726 (1 February 2011 - 31 December 2012).

2011. Baseline monitoring and molecular characterization of the state endangered Enigmatic Cavesnail, Fontigens antroecetes (Hubricht 1940). Taylor, S.J. (Principal Investigator), M.R. Douglas and J.S. Tiemann. Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board. $2,878 (3 January - 15 October 2011).

2010. Lespedeza cuneata (Fabaceae) Invasion Dynamics: Microbial symbionts, legacy effects, community alteration & variation. Taylor, S.J. (Principal Investigator) and A.C. Yannarell. U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center. $53,422 (16 September 2010 - December 31, 2011).

2010. Hine's Emerald Dragonfly: 5-Year Review of Recovery Plan. Taylor, S.J. (Principal Investigator). Illinois Department of Natural Resources. $5,000. (15 August 2010 - 31 October 2011)

2010. Lespedeza cuneata (Fabaceae) Invasion Dynamics: Further Studies. Steven J. Taylor (Principal Investigator), Anthony C. Yannarell, and Aaron Hagar. U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center. $104,874. ( February 2010 - 31 March 2011).

2009. Status assessment survey for springtails (Collembola) in Illinois caves. F. Soto-Adames and S.J. Taylor (Co-Principal Investigators). Agency: Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board. $4,663. (1 April 2009 - 31 March 2010).

2009. Lespedeza cuneata (Fabaceae) Invasion Dynamics. S.J. Taylor (Principal Investigator), A.C. Yannarell, and A. Hagar (Co-Investigators). Agency: U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center. $56,995. (9 March 2009 - 30 April 2010).

2007. Development of a Database of US Army Installation Floristic Inventories. S.J. Taylor & G.A. Levin (Co-Principal Investigators). Agency: U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Champaign, Illinois. $16,635 for 5 months (ends 30 September 2007).

2007. Development of a Bexar County Karst Invertebrate Recovery Plan (additional funds). S.J. Taylor (Principal Investigator). Agency: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. $18,600 for 6 months (ends 1 July 2007).

2006. Biological inventory and monitoring protocol for caves in Great Basin National Park, Nevada. S.J. Taylor (Principal Investigator) and J.K. Krejca (Zara Environmental, LLC, Buda, Texas). Agency: Great Basin National Park, National Park Service. $25,578 for 22 months (ends 31 March 2008).

2005. Development of a Bexar County karst invertebrate recovery plan. Steven J. Taylor (Principal Investigator). Agency: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. $20,000 for 5.5 months (ends 28 April 2006).

2005. Mark/Recapture Study of Plethodon sp. at Fort Hood, Texas. Steven J. Taylor (Principal Investigator) and Christopher A. Phillips. Agency: U. S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Champaign, Illinois. $95,582 for 14 months (ends September 30, 2006).

2005. Examining possible foraging differences in urban and rural cave cricket populations: Preliminary study of carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (d13C, d15N) as indicators of trophic level. Steven J. Taylor, Jean K. Krejca, and Keith C. Hackley (Co-Principal Investigators). Agency: Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. $42,944 for 3 years (ends December 1, 2007).

2005. A biological assessment of ten caves in Lava Beds National Monument. Taylor, Steven J. and Jean K. Krejca (Co-Principal Investigators). Agency: Lava Beds National Monument, National Park Service, Tulelake, California. $18,800 for 1 year (ends April 30, 2006).

2005. Phylogeography of cave crickets (Ceuthophilus spp.) in central Texas: A keystone taxon for the conservation and management of federally endangered cave arthropods. Steven J. Taylor, Jason D. Weckstein, Jean K. Krejca, George Veni, Kevin P. Johnson, and James R. Reddell (Co-Principal Investigators). Agency: Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. $19,720 for 2.5 years (ends December 1, 2007).

2004. Supplement to: Insect biodiversity in forested and cleared lands at Camp Atterbury, Indiana: Terrestrial Insects and Environmental Health. Steven J. Taylor (Principal Investigator), Andrew V. Suarez, and Christopher H. Dietrich. Agency: Agency: U. S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Champaign, Illinois. $8,703 for 4.5 months (ends December 30, 2004).

2004. Insect biodiversity in forested and cleared lands at Camp Attebury, Indiana: Study design for evaluation and monitoring of temporal changes and land-use effects in disturbed watersheds. Steven J. Taylor (Principal Investigator), Andrew V. Suarez, and Christopher H. Dietrich. Agency: Agency: U. S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Champaign, Illinois. $34,999 for 8 months (ends December 30, 2004).

2004. Population estimates and age class structure of Plethodon sp. (Plethodontidae) salamanders at Fort Hood, Texas. Steven J. Taylor (Principal Investigator) and Christopher A. Phillips. Agency: U. S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Champaign, Illinois. $97,008 for 20 months (ends September 30, 2005).

2003. Cave Fauna Survey and Monitoring at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. Steven J. Taylor (Principal Investigator). Agency: Illinois State Museum Society. $94,949 (ends April 30, 20052005 [extended to 31 March 2007]).

2003. Examining the role of cave crickets (Rhaphidophoridae) in cave ecosystems: Preliminary studies of isotope ratios (d13C, d15N) and radio tracking. Steven J. Taylor (Principal Investigator), Keith C. Hackley and Jean K. Krejca. Agency: U. S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Champaign, Illinois. $80,847 for 1 year (ends September 30, 2004).

2003. Differences in water quality between the upper & lower reaches of Illinois Caverns: Potential effects on populations of Gammarus acherondytes. Samuel V. Panno (Principal Investigator), K. C. Hackley, W. R. Kelly, S. J. Taylor and H. H. Hwang (Co-Investigatiors). Illinois Department of Natural Resources. $17,000 for 1.75 years.

2003. Establishing baseline data on seasonal physiological requirements for Gammarus acherondytes and Gammarus troglophilus in relation to microbial oxygen demand: Supplemental funds supporting current research. Steven J. Taylor (Principal Investigator) and Frank M. Wilhelm (Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale). Agency: Division of Natural Heritage, Illinois Department of Natural Resources. $5,000 for January - June 30, 2003 (Total award beginning in 2000: $20,912).

2002. A biological survey and monitoring protocol for thirteen caves at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. Steven J. Taylor (Principal Investigator). Agency: Illinois State Museum Society. $25,846 for 7 months .January 1, 2003 to July 30, 2003.

2002. A biological inventory of eight caves in Great Basin National Park. Steven J. Taylor (Principal Investigator) and Jean K. Krejca (Integrative Biology, University of Texas, Austin). Agency: Great Basin National Park, National Park Service, Baker, Nevada. $15,147 for 8 months. January 2, 2003 to September 30, 2003.

2002. A survey of Red Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta) distribution and abundance at Fort Hood, Texas. Steven J. Taylor (Principal Investigator). Agency: U. S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Champaign, Illinois. $28,793 for 10 months. December 21, 2002 - September 30, 2003.

2001. Investigation of Red Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis Invicta) impacts to the ecology at Ft. Hood, Texas. Steven J. Taylor (Principal Investigator). Agency: U. S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Champaign, Illinois. $292,643. November 21, 2001 - September 30, 2003.

This project has three components:
  • Investigation of the potential for Red Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta) impacts on rare karst invertebrates at Fort Hood, Texas: a field study. Steven J. Taylor. $222,081. December 10, 2001 - September 30, 2003.
  • A survey of Plethodon sp. (Plethodontidae) salamander populations in caves and sinkholes at Fort Hood, Texas. Steven J. Taylor and Christopher A. Phillips. $39,069. February 21, 2002 - September 30, 2002.
  • Red Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta) predation in nests of endangered birds at Fort Hood, Texas. Steven J. Taylor and Christopher J. Whelan. $31,492. December 21, 2001 - December 30, 2002.
  • 2001. Investigation of the potential for Red Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta) impacts on rare or endangered karst invertebrates at Fort Hood, Texas: Literature survey and study design. Steven J. Taylor (Principal Investigator). Agency: U. S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Champaign, Illinois. $43,167 for 4 months.

    2000. Establishing baseline data on seasonal physiological requirements for Gammarus acherondytes and Gammarus troglophilus in relation to microbial oxygen demand. Steven J. Taylor (Principal Investigator), Center for Biodiversity, Illinois Natural History Survey and Ginny L. Adams, Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. Agency: Division of Natural Heritage, Illinois Department of Natural Resources. $15,912 for 1.7 years (2000-2001). Extended through June 30, 2003.

    2000. Monitoring patterns of visitor usage of four important caves in Monroe and St. Clair counties. R. S. Toomey (Principal Investigator), Illinois State Museum, with S. J. Taylor (INHS, Center for Biodiversity), D. Tecic (IDNR, Division of Natural Heritage), D. S. Newman (Illinois Nature Preserves Commission), and C. Hespen (IDNR, Division of Land Management). Agency: Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Sinkhole Plain Ecosystem Partnership (C2000). $7,043 for 1 year (2000-2001). [grant was awarded, but lead PI moved out of state - the work was not be completed, and funds were returned to granting agency]

    1998. Subterranean Amphipoda (Crustacea) of Illinois' Salem Plateau: Spatial and Temporal Components of Microdistribution. Steven J. Taylor and Donald W. Webb (Co-Principal Investigators). Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Sinkhole Plain Ecosytem Partnership (C2000). $14,452 for 1.5 years.

    1998. Spatial and temporal analyses of the bacterial fauna and water, sediment, and amphipod tissue chemistry within the range of Gammarus acherondytes. Steven J. Taylor, Donald W. Webb (Co-Principal Investigators) and Samuel V. Panno. Agency: Division of Natural Heritage, Illinois Department of Natural Resources. $55,453 for 1.75 years.

    1998. Inventory of the Water Striders of the lower Illinois River basin. Agency: Illinois Wildlife Preservation Fund, Small Project Program. $990 for 1 year.

    1991. Distribution, faunal list, and keys to semiaquatic bugs of Illinois. Agency: Illinois Department of Conservation, Non-Game Checkoff Fund. $982.

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    PROPOSALS SUBMITTED AND IN REVIEW:

    2011. Proyecto de Investigacion: Distribución, Espeleología, Biologia, Paleontologia y Cartografía de Cuevas Terrestres y Volcánicas en Eel Oriente Ecuatoriano y Galápagos. (“Research Project: Distribution, caving, biology, paleontology and mapping inland caves and volcanoes in the eastern Ecuador and Galapagos”). Prof. Dr. Theofilos Toulkeridis (Director, Investigator), Ing. Oswaldo Vinicio Padilla Almeida, Ing. Mario Cruz, MSc. Aaron Addison, & Dr. Steven J. Taylor (Investigators). Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y la Construccion, Escuela Politecnica del Ejercito (ESPE), Ecuador. US$51,000 for 1 year (October 2011 – September 2012).

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    PROPOSALS:

    2010. Fungal & bacterial communities in food webs supporting sixteen federally listed species: caves with & without bats. Taylor, S.J. (Principal Investigator), A.C. Yannarell, A.N. Miller and J.K. Krejca. Texas Parks & Wildlife Department, $58,767 for 1.5 years (1 June 2011 - 30 November 2012).

    2010. Natural fungal & bacterial communities in caves & on bats in central Texas: before a devastating disease. Taylor, S.J., A.C. Yannarell, A.N. Miller & J.K. Krejca. Texas Parks & Wildlife Department. $28,635. (1 July 2010 - 30 June 2011).

    2006. Terrestrial Insect Survey at Camp Atterbury, Indiana. Steven J. Taylor (Principal Investigator). Agency: U. S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Champaign, Illinois. $61,150 for 2 years.

    2006. Assessing Energetic Contribution of Cave Crickets (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae: Ceuthophilus spp.) to Cave Communities in Central Texas. Steven J. Taylor (Principal Investigator), Frank M. Wilhelm (Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale), and Jean K. Krejca (Zara Environmental, LLC, Buda, Texas). Agency: Texas Parks & Wildlife Department. $18,525 for 2 years.

    2005. Twisted-wing parasites (Insecta: Strepsiptera: Halictophagidae): Potential biocontrol agents of the Glassy-winged Sharpshooter. Taylor, S. J., J. Kathirithamby, C. Tipping, and R. F. Mizell, III (Co-Principal Investigators). Agency: California Department of Food and Agriculture. $62,432 for 1 year.

    2000. An evaluation of the quality of groundwater entering and flowing through Illinois Caverns at the Illinois Caverns State Natural Area: Phase I. Samuel V. Panno (Principal Investigator), Steven J. Taylor and C. Pius Weibel Agency: Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Office of Scientific Research and Analysis. $37,308 for 1 year.

    1998. Subterranean Amphipoda (Crustacea) of Illinois' Salem Plateau: Spatial and Temporal Components of Microdistribution. Steven J. Taylor and Donald W. Webb (Co-Principal Investigators). Agency: Illinois Wildlife Preservation Fund $19,852 for 1.5 years.

    1997. The endangered Illinois Cave Amphipod, life history and population dynamics and their implications for land use management. Steven J. Taylor and Donald W. Webb (Co-Principal Investigators). Agency: Illinois Department of Natural Resources, State Habitat Stamp Committee. $17,433.

    1993. An index of biological integrity as a tool for monitoring hazardous waste impacts on karst aquifers. B. M. Burr (Principal Investigator), S. J. Taylor, and J. Krejca. Agency: Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources, Hazardous Waste Research and Information Center. $66,550.

    1993. Faunal inventory of subterranean streams and development of a cave aquatic biological monitoring program. B. M. Burr (Principal Investigator) and S. J. Taylor. Agency: Division of Science and Resources Management, Mammoth Cave National Park, National Park Service. $88,808.

    1992. Can isozyme electrophoresis clarify phylogenetic relationships among semiaquatic bugs in the superfamily Gerroidea (Insecta: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha)? Steven J. Taylor (Principal Investigator). Agency: Sigma Xi. $606.

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    MANUSCRIPTS IN PREPARATION:

    Randrianandrasana, M. and S. J. Taylor. Feeding habits in immature stages of Isoperla nana (Insecta: Plecoptera: Perlodidae) in Jordan Creek (Vermilion County, Illinois).

    Taylor, S. J., J. K. Krejca, and M. E. Slay. Invertebrate distribution patterns and cave tours in Lehman Caves, Great Basin National Park, Nevada, USA

    Taylor, S.J. and F.N. Soto-Adames. Springtails from caves in Illinois’ Salem Plateau: alpha and beta diversity, richness, sampling completeness and habitats.

    Taylor, S.J., J.K. Krejca, M.E. Slay, and G.M. Baker. Cave visitation in relation to invertebrate distribution patterns in Lehman Cave, Great Basin National Park, Nevada, USA.

    Taylor, S.J. and M.S. Harvey. The generic placement of the Lehman Caves Pseudoscorpion (Neobisiidae: Microcreagrinae) with notes on its distribution.

    Taylor, S.J., J.K. Krejca, and K.C. Hackley. Trophic structure and biodiversity in urban and rural preserves: Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (δ13C, δ15N) of cave species.

    Taylor, S.J. A new Paraphyrnus (Arachnida: Amblypydgi) from southern Belize.

    Bond, J. and S.J. Taylor. New millipedes & spiders from caves in Belize.

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    RESEARCH IN PROGRESS:

  • Taylor, S.J., S.W. Heads, J.K. Krejca, M.E. Slay J. Bond, G.B. Hoese, J. Jacoby, C.M. Slay, K.D. Hager and A. Beveridge. Bioinventory of caves in the Toledo District, Belize.
        6-20 April 2011: Led expedition to caves of the Toledo District of Belize
        24 April - 12 May 2012: Leading expedition to caves of the Toledo District of Belize
  • Weckstein, J.D., K.P. Johnson, S.J. Taylor, D.M. Takiya, J.K. Krejca, J.D. Murdoch, G. Veni, and J. R. Reddell. Phylogeography of cave crickets (Ceuthophilus spp.) in central Texas.
  • Taylor. S.J. and F.N. Soto-Adames. Springtail diversity in caves of Illinois' Salem Plateau.
  • Taylor, S.J., M.R. Douglas, J.S. Tiemann, and R. Weck. Genetics and monitoring of Fontigens antroecetes, an Illinois state-endangered cavesnail.
  • Taylor, S.J. and M. Harvey. Generic placement of the Lehman Caves psuedoscorpion.
  • Shear, W.A. and S.J. Taylor. A new Achemenides (Diplopoda) from a cave in Minnesota.
  • Taylor, S.J. A new chernetid (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones) from Nevada.
  • Taylor, S.J., M.E. Slay, and M.R. Douglas. Pseudoscorpions from Ozark caves.
  • Taylor, S.J. and T. Gilliland. Bioinventory of caves of White Pine County, Nevada.
  • Kent, A, J. Nardi, S.J. Taylor and J.K. Krejca. Gut symbionts of the Texas cave millipede Cambala speobia.
  • Taylor, S.J. and D. Szafoni. Historical landscape changes within the range of the Illinois Cave Amphipod (Gammarus acherondytes).
  • Weckstein, J.D., K.P. Johnson, J.D. Murdoch, J.K. Krejca, D.M. Takiya, G. Veni, J.R. Reddell, and S.J. Taylor. Phylogeography of cave crickets (Ceuthophilus spp.) in central Texas based on mitochondrial gene Sequences.
  • Taylor, S.J., J.K. Krejca, and K. McDermid. Foraging range and habitat use of Ceuthophilus secretus along a Texas roadway.
  • Taylor, S.J., J.K. Krejca, and M.E. Slay. Biota of caves at Great Basin National Park, Nevada.
  • Taylor, S.J., J.K. Krejca, and M.J. Dreslik. Evaluating nocturnal foraging of cave crickets (Ceuthophilus secretus, Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae) using radio telemetry.
  • Slay, M.E. and S.J. Taylor. Reducing conservation data gaps: Faunal inventory of 20 Arkansas karst species of greatest conservation concern.
  • Taylor, S.J., J.K. Krejca, and K.C. Hackley. Stable isotope studies of urban and rural cave cricket (Ceuthophilus spp.) populations in central Texas.
  • Kathirithamby, J., S.J. Taylor and others. Taxonomic and biological studies of Strepsiptera (Insecta).
  • Taylor, S.J. and J.K. Krejca. Cavernicole community structure at Fort Hood, Bell and Coryell counties, Texas.
  • Yanahan, A. and S.J. Taylor. Carabidae of Illinois algific slopes.
  • Yanahan, A. and S.J. Taylor. Ground beetle (Carabidae) communities at Braidwood Dunes and Savannah Nature Preserve.
  • Taylor, S.J. and others. Taxonomic and biological studies of Aradidae (Hemiptera-Heteropotera).
  • Taylor, S.J. and J.E. McPherson. Biologcial studies of Gerromorpha (Hemiptera-Heteroptera) of Illinois.
  • Yannarell, A., S.J. Taylor and and others. Invasion dynamics of Lespedeza cuneata.

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    RESEARCH INTERESTS:

  • Protection and management of karst resources
  • Ecology, biology, and taxonomy of cave fauna
  • Groundwater quality in relation to subterranean life in karst areas
  • Biology and taxonomy of Pseudoscorpiones
  • Ecology, biology, taxonomy, and systematics of the Heteroptera, especially: Gerromorpha, Nepomorpha, Coreidae and Aradidae
  • Biology and taxonomy of Strepsiptera

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    TEACHING EXPERIENCE:

    Graduate and Postdoctoral Students
    • Graduate Student Advisor:
      • Nick Dolce (NRES, University of Illinois)
      • Justin Fuller (Entomology, University of Illinois)
      • Maminirina Randrianandrasana (Entomology, University of Illinois)
      • Alan Yanahan (Entomology, University of Illinois)
    • Graduate Student Committee Member:
      • Fay Mayer (doctoral student Biological Sciences, Texas Tech University)
      • Sindhu Krishnankutty (doctoral student, Entomology, University of Illinois)
      • Maminirina Randrianandrasana (doctoral student, Entomology, University of Illinois)
      • Mike Venarsky (MS in Zoology, SIU Carbondale)
    • Graduate Students who have worked in my lab:
      • Ember Chabot (Entomology, University of Illinois)
      • Casey Funderburk (Entomology, University of Illinois)
      • Jen Mui (Biology, University of Illinois)
      • Massimo Pessino (Entomology, University of Illinois)
      • Jenn Smith (Animal Biology, University of Illinois)
      • Mike Venarsky (Zoology, SIU Carbondale)
    • Post-Doctoral researchers who have worked in my lab:
      • Dr. Karlene Ramsdell
      • Dr. Jamie Zahniser
    Classes
    • INSECT IDENTIFICATION COURSE, Illinois Chapter of the American Fisheries Society. Taught in collaboration with Drs. R. Edward DeWalt and Don Webb. Allerton Park, Champaign County, Illinois. 25-27 August 1998

    • Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Department of Zoology - Laboratory Instructor:
      • NATURAL HISTORY OF THE INVERTEBRATES, Spring 1990
      • THE INVERTEBRATES-B, Spring 1990
      • AQUATIC ENTOMOLOGY, Fall 1988, Fall 1990
      • ENTOMOLOGY, Fall 1989
      • BIOLOGY, Summer 1988
      • DIVERSITY OF ANIMAL LIFE-INVERTEBRATES, Spring 1988, Spring 1989, Spring 1990
      • INSECT PEST CONTROL, Fall 1987, Fall 1988, Fall 1989, Fall 1990
      • INTRODUCTORY ZOOLOGY, Fall 1987

    • Texas A&M University, Department of Biology - Laboratory Instructor:
      • HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY, Summer 1987
      • MAMMALIAN ANATOMY, Summer 1987
      • PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF SYSTEMATIC BIOLOGY, Fall 1984
      • INVERTEBRATE ECOLOGY, Summer 1984, Spring 1985
      • GENERAL BIOLOGY-2nd Semester, Spring 1984, Spring 1987
      • GENERAL BIOLOGY-1st Semester, Fall 1983

    • Hendrix College, Department of Biology - Laboratory Assistant:
      • ZOOLOGY, BACTERIOLOGY, and SYMBIOSIS - 1981, 1982, 1983

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    REFERENCES:

    Available upon request



    This page is maintained by Steve Taylor. Please email sjtaylor@illinois.edu with comments and corrections.
    Created 14 July 1997, last modified 10 July 2012.